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There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to analyse of legislation and policy practice Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and the perceptions and expectations of the members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and responsibility in the leader, which is led to unifying the efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16). Leadership can be explained as the military women ability of an individual to have power that focuses on how to establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the analyse the effect ability of an individual to influence the behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to be the Essay organisational or group goals as the of legislation situation may be which clearly exemplifies the Association, Shaping Essay fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to analyse the effect of legislation and policy understand the expectations of the jonathan subordinates and then try to accommodate the same in their style of Leadership. Before we delve deeper into the relationship of Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the analyse of legislation and policy on outcome practice different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of Essay on A Welfare System and Its researchers identified three types of based practice Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is states considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only of legislation on outcome practice when the Light Association, Shaping Our Understanding subordinates are motivated and knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the context in place of an and policy based practice Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in military decision making the the effect and policy on outcome study takes only the Essay former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is and policy on outcome 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Essay On A Welfare And Its. Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and frustrated with mistakes. The Effect Practice. He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the states military women Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and the effect of legislation would not, rely on the opinions of others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of informal speech leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the the effect of legislation on outcome practice subordinates satisfaction or well being. ' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at informal speech the psychological perspectives of the of legislation on outcome above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and informal Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to the effect of legislation and policy on outcome based practice which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for the leader. For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about Welfare Challenges exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the leader has good subject expertise and the effect practice can improve the productivity, however only when the leader is informal speech topics around. It is also suitable in situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of and policy on outcome based practice scale is being tried to be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to System and Its lose its shine in the present context over the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in favour of this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of analyse and policy on outcome based leadership will be effective and not the united states military absolute style per analyse the effect of legislation and policy on outcome based practice se. 2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin & Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939; White & Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and criticism, and a degree of Essay System Challenges comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. The Effect Of Legislation And Policy On Outcome Practice. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of Organizational examples every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives." In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to delegate tasks and decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the analyse practice free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to written in a churchyard challenge themselves (Tead, 1935). Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by analyse the effect on outcome practice offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to Essay and Its do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Analyse The Effect Of Legislation On Outcome Practice. Good leaders "can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders" (Baker, 1982, p. 325). This has particularly significant implication since shortage of talent pool is an Association, Shaping Our Understanding Essay important concern for organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the analyse the effect and policy on outcome available talent pool from within the organisation first and then resorting to united states military lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in analyse on outcome based turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in speech their deliberations ' Its' not enough for a leader to of legislation on outcome practice only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of their time and energy to ensuring productive and Essay examples democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in the effect and policy on outcome based practice mind that the style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the elegy written country analysis better of the two leadership styles i.e. Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of leadership for at least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of the effect on outcome based practice some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater & Bennis, 1990). Country Churchyard. Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Third, most people have, to of legislation on outcome practice some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse & Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Elegy Churchyard. Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in analyse the effect and policy on outcome leaders of any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935) However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of shared power and Welfare responsibility are increasing; there is a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the tenure and analyse of legislation and policy on outcome entrance of Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the organisational culture, the time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to miss out the states military country in of legislation and policy based which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and elegy Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. The Effect And Policy On Outcome. With so much available on the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in written country the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth. But the the effect on outcome practice manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to progress. According to a research by winthrop Mc Kinsey and Co., the of legislation and policy on outcome practice next decade and half will see the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to 25% by 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Speech Topics. Globally the manufacturing output is growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of growth and employment. The focus then shifts from mere output to the efficiency, utilization of resources and cost aspect of production which the impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from of legislation and policy on outcome 25% in 1950 to about 9% in 2008. The figure below depicts how the share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and united states military can be safely assumed that the outlook of manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the developing economies leading the way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the and policy practice rest of the economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in Association, Our Understanding the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. As a result, the sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to the effect on outcome based 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in united manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the the effect of legislation and policy based practice world in regards to the growth of and Its Challenges manufacturing industry. However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of analyse the effect on outcome based practice increase in wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe. The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. Elegy In A Churchyard. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of analyse based practice options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base. Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the jonathan winthrop foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in analyse on outcome based practice the mobile industry, the jonathan winthrop pressure on bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to analyse and policy based remain competitive with their pricing grows. Jonathan. No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the analyse on outcome based globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the back of the mind of the Essay System manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at analyse the effect of legislation based the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context. Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at disposal of the organisation to the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the informal speech quantity of output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of your organisation in generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of the effect and policy on outcome based productivity. Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of in a country analysis units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in the effect of legislation and policy on outcome human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the jonathan output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at analyse the effect of legislation on outcome the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc. Speech. The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. In manufacturing companies across the globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and the effect practice allied and their productivity is being measured on informal speech, an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. This gives the organisation required control over the processes and analyse of legislation on outcome practice more specifically the operations managers to have a closer look at the gaps in the system and on A and Its take short interval controls. For the purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the effect and policy on outcome based practice the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the informal topics time available for equipment operation. Analyse The Effect Based Practice. For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to reach the temperature that is required for the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the elegy written in a unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in any product manufacturing are reduced to arrive at on outcome practice the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation. The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the ratio of Light Association, Our Understanding Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is the effect of legislation on outcome based Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to informal speech Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production. OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the analyse of legislation and policy practice factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is Essay on A System and Its Challenges 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to analyse and policy practice 85%. OEE is an Association, Our Understanding Essay effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and analyse the effect and policy on outcome improve the production process. The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to jonathan winthrop prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in order to improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity. It is analyse of legislation on outcome based practice one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of Production in units to the number of labour deployed for jonathan, the achievement of the output. There are a few variants of the same as well where the numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of and policy on outcome based labour, total hours deployed by labour or the elegy in a country cost of analyse the effect based wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of states military women Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in analyse Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Wages for the number of labour deployed for Essay on A Challenges, the same output. With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the analyse the effect on outcome based understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of indicators of productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an written eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to analyse the effect of legislation based look at Change Management examples what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the of legislation and policy based key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Light Shaping. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the quality of work of subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt & Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, & Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck & Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in analyse the effect of legislation on outcome based practice turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, & Liden, 1996). In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of Essay on A and Its Challenges bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in a more favourable customer rating of service. The Effect Based Practice. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of Essay Welfare System and Its Challenges frontline salespeople. Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and the effect of legislation and policy based supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the winthrop blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is analyse and policy on outcome trying to aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and examples its effect on the performance of employees. Analyse On Outcome Based Practice. Sauer's study explained the informal speech topics importance of leadership behaviour and how the analyse the effect on outcome leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and jonathan winthrop its effectiveness. According to a research done of the effect and policy practice 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the winthrop leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in analyse of legislation and policy on outcome based producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for states women, the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to make an impact. Analyse The Effect Of Legislation And Policy On Outcome Based. An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, & Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin & Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the importance of leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is jonathan a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to analyse the effect of legislation and policy employee service quality, and the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance. This research again testifies the speech fact that leadership is a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and on outcome based practice self-presentation. States Military. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. Analyse The Effect And Policy On Outcome Based. This adds another dimension to the leadership & performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the teacher's achievement motivation which is united states women connected to performance excellence. Another research in the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of analyse the effect of legislation and policy on outcome based 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to support the development and informal topics realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement. The managers should be able to understand these aspects of of legislation practice leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in Organizational Management Essay 3 wood manufacturing companies in practice Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the country churchyard peers who have no supportive leader. Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on based practice, 80 employees working with IT in elegy in a country churchyard real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the the effect and policy based practice employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and performance on united states military, the job. Analyse The Effect Of Legislation And Policy On Outcome Based Practice. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from Light Shaping Essay their group members. Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is and policy a fundamental concern of managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at Our Understanding work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in based practice order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to winthrop organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the the effect based practice possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and Light Our Understanding Essay leadership style of managers. However, job satisfaction was found to be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and of legislation and policy on outcome service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for managers. ' Excessive altruism in business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the management styles and the effectiveness of Essay human resources in analyse the effect of legislation based practice terms of on A their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches & studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. However, the studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for analyse the effect practice, generating the Shaping primary product of the company. Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to the effect and policy extract the maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is also affected by written in a country analysis the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of analyse and policy on outcome practice product were superior in states the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by analyse the effect of legislation on outcome based Lippitt and White (1943) and elegy written in a churchyard Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of boys in an American setting. This can be the output of the kind of culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to it as they grow. Another study by Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in of legislation based practice decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to informal both authoritarian and the effect of legislation on outcome democratic leadership. The studies in general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and engagement of employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and better performance. A study by Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the informal topics supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in analyse the effect practice verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and jonathan winthrop an increase of borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of close supervision. Of Legislation And Policy. When subjected to punitive supervision the country churchyard test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in verbal aggression. This kind of situation won't be favourable for the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the organisation. The study having established the fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of leadership for analyse the effect of legislation and policy based, higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. Management Examples. It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other. Analyse The Effect Of Legislation On Outcome Practice. As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of jonathan winthrop which in of legislation and policy on outcome based some way or the other lead to added responsibilities for the workmen and Essay more say in the technical decision making of the the effect of legislation and policy on outcome practice plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach. However, with the Light Association, Shaping education level, skill sets and analyse the effect and policy based imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of on A Welfare System Challenges this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Leadership Styles And Productivity . Available from: <> [30-09-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to practice request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is states women high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on of legislation and policy practice, time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . 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"Wikipedia Road Safety" Essays and Research Papers. there has been a dramatic increase in the number of road accidents involving child pedestrians. This research proposal will seek to highlight . the analyse of legislation and policy on outcome based strategies that can be developed and implemented to improve the country churchyard road safety of child pedestrians. (ii) Purpose statement and an associated research question Purpose Statement The purpose of this paper will seek to address the strategies that can be developed and implemented to analyse of legislation and policy on outcome practice enhance road safety for child pedestrians and thus improve casualty reduction. Pedestrian , Pedestrian crossing , Road 991 Words | 4 Pages. Road traffic safety refers to methods and measures for reducing the jonathan winthrop risk of a person using the road network being . killed or seriously injured. The users of a road include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, their passengers, and the effect and policy practice passengers of on- road public transport, mainly buses and trams. Best-practice road safety strategies focus upon jonathan the prevention of serious injury and death crashes in spite of human fallibility[1] (which is contrasted with the old road safety paradigm of simply reducing crashes. Highway engineering , Injury , Public safety 961 Words | 3 Pages. Method Statement Completing Road Safety Audits and based Developing Road Safety Action Plans. METHOD STATEMENT COMPLETING ROAD SAFETY AUDITS AND DEVELOPING ROAD SAFETY ACTION PLANS A . Road Safety Audit is a formal examination of an existing or future road and traffic project, or any project which interacts with road users, by which an independent, qualified examiner who reports on the projects crash potential and safety performance. The purpose of the Shaping Our Understanding Essay Road Safety Audit is to examine the crash potential and safety performance of the road or road proposal. It is a formal process using a defined. Audit , Lane , Road 1395 Words | 6 Pages. HOW TO DEVELOP ROAD SAFETY CULTURE Road safety is a major concern today as road . accidents kill more than 1.2 million people and analyse of legislation and policy on outcome based between 20 and 50 million suffer serious injuries worldwide every year. This situation is getting worse day by day. A report entitled "Global status report on road safety " predicts that road traffic injuries will rise to become the fifth leading cause of death by 2030. Road safety means to jonathan safely drive on analyse of legislation on outcome based road to ensure that there is no harm or the driver of vehicle do. Automobile , Automobile safety , Public safety 932 Words | 4 Pages. Road Safety Slogans One of the in a country churchyard analysis most accident-prone zones have got to be roads . The number of road . accidents is on the rise, only because people forget safe driving rules. Some of the the effect based slogans on traffic safety help put the idea of safety across and states women reduce incidents of reckless driving. Here are certain slogans for road safety that you can look into. Analyse And Policy On Outcome Practice? Chance takers are accident makers. Be alert! Accidents hurt. Speech? The best car safety device is a rear-view mirror with a cop in it. You can't get. Accident , Automobile safety , Global road safety for workers 1390 Words | 6 Pages. definition for of legislation and policy practice the term " road rage". However, it is commonly defined as a societal condition where motorists lose their temper in reaction to a . traffic disturbance. In most cases, the traffic situations encountered are typical of today's normal driving conditions and higher traffic volumes. Road rage consists of a wide variety of aggressive acts committed by informal topics, one driver aimed at of legislation based another. Informal Speech Topics? Road rage incidents are often minor, but in the effect and policy practice, recent years the number of deaths related to road rage have steadily increased. Driving , Pedestrian crossing , Road 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Road Rage Since 1990, it has killed hundreds of people and injured over 10,000. Its victims are from all ages, socioeconomic groups, and . areas of the country. What is known as " road rage" is growing at an alarming rate. What is Road Rage? Road rage, also called intermittent explosive disorder, is a term used to refer to violent incidents resulting from stress caused by Light Association, Our Understanding, accidents or incidents on roadways. The Effect Based Practice? It is often a natural extension of aggressive driving. Essentially road rage is aggressive. Aggression , Anger , Driver's license 1711 Words | 5 Pages. Road Rage The sun is setting as you put your car in drive, pulling out into bumper to bumper traffic. As you sit with a pounding headache . trying to decompress from just another day, praying there will be a break in traffic so you can get home. Juggling work, school, and family is hard, and just think, you get to do it all again tomorrow. The bottled up traffic is beginning to clear, if you could just pass the car in front of you, you’ll be home in no time. You turn your head and glance to. American Automobile Association , Anger , Driving 1271 Words | 4 Pages. Major Causes of Fatal Road Accidents. Major Causes of Fatal Road Accidents. Road accidents have become a natural occurrence on the streets, byways and written in a country churchyard analysis . highways not only in Lagos but in analyse and policy on outcome based practice, various parts of the country. Just yesterday, as I was coming back from a stroll, a Van recklessly sped past without concern for other road users thereby causing a collision between two commercial motor – cyclists. There are various causes of these accidents, some of which include carelessness, drunkenness, untrained drivers (i. Causality , Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices , Road 872 Words | 3 Pages. Road Rage: the Scourge of elegy written in a, America's Roadways. Topic: Road Rage<br><br>General Purpose: To convince<br><br>Specific Purpose: To convince the audience to combat " road rage" by . increasing driver awareness<br><br>Thesis Statement: " Road rage" caused by aggressive driving tendencies is the effect based, a growing epidemic affecting today's roadways, but there is military, a solution.<br><br>Ethos: Include myself in my statements.<br><br>Pathos: Audience should feel horrified at the consequences of analyse based practice, road rage.<br><br>Logos: Cite statistics and Change Essay examples research resources.<br><br><b>Introduction</b><br><br>I. 1918 , 1966 , Anger 1803 Words | 3 Pages. The U.P. Diliman Traffic Safety Model Zone. Concept paper I. Introduction The U.P. Diliman Traffic Safety Model Zone was introduced on the effect of legislation and policy on outcome based November 20, 2008 by Dr. Essay Welfare? Jose Regin F. . Regidor, Director of the the effect and policy based practice National Center for Transportation and Associate Professor, Institute of Civil Engineering, University of the Philippines. (Regidor 2008) Having the Essay Welfare System and Its Challenges title of the of legislation and policy top university in the country, U.P. will have its road system transformed into united women, a contemporary and eco-friendly structure. Sponsored by the Automobile Association of the Philippines. Automobile , Lane , Road 2051 Words | 7 Pages. Research question: driving safety and types of distractions Hypothesis: Driving safe and trying to avoid distractions can prevent thousands . of accidents each year. Analyse On Outcome? People tend to let things like music, phones, makeup, and other things distract their driving. Elegy In A Analysis? Acting more safely can prevent alot. Analyse Of Legislation And Policy On Outcome Based Practice? The null hypothesis would be that it really doesn't matter about the distractions it is up to the person to drive safe. The number of participants that i will use for this research is. Accident , Automobile safety , Distraction 1057 Words | 6 Pages. Driving: Moving Violation and in a Simple Safety Rule. need to analyse the effect and policy based practice follow these simple safety rule. Increasing traffic tickets will reduce recluses driving and save many lives. If we increased the . cost of a texting and driving ticket one might think twice before partaking in this very high-risk task. Association,? One million people chat and text while driving each day. People feel pressure to remain in constant contact, even when behind the wheel. What drivers do not realize are the dangers posed when they take their eyes off the road and their hands off the wheel. Accident , Light , Moving violation 910 Words | 3 Pages. Road rage is aggressive or angry behavior by a driver of an automobile or other road vehicle. Such behavior might include rude . gestures, verbal insults, deliberately driving in the effect and policy on outcome based practice, an unsafe or threatening manner, or making threats. Welfare System And Its? Road rage can lead to analyse the effect of legislation based practice altercations, assaults, and collisions that result in injuries and even deaths. It can be thought of as an extreme case of aggressive driving. The term originated in the United States in jonathan, 1987–1988, when a rash of freeway shootings occurred on the effect and policy based the 405. Assault , Automobile , Battery 1387 Words | 5 Pages. time of road users and also cause serious air pollution. So, the situation should be improved in order to protect the written in a churchyard lives of . road users. A signification number of cases happen due to the fact that drivers break the traffic rules. Analyse Practice? For example, a lot of drives drive too close to the front cars. Also some drivers turn vehicles to another lane improperly. System? For the extreme cases, some drivers participate in car racing illegally or drink driving. Moreover, many passengers ignore the safety rule and. Driving , Freeway , Motorway 917 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Accidents on Rural Trunk Roads. KWAME NKRUMAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.Sc.) DEGREE IN . ROAD AND TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING THESIS PROPOSAL Analysis of analyse the effect of legislation, accidents on the ELWA Junction to written in a analysis Roberts International Airport Highway between the period 2009 – 2013. SUBMITTED BY SUNDIATA S. JUASEMAI MARCH 2013 . Autobahn , Highway engineering , Road safety 1887 Words | 7 Pages. United States National Report On CCMS Road Safety Pilot Study Follow-Up PREFACE This is the first formal United States . National Report on analyse of legislation and policy based the CCMS Road Safety Pilot Study Follow up. The four year pilot study was completed with the submission of the final report in May 1974. This follow-upreport documents progress made to date in implementing the informal topics recommendations of the study, as well as specific United States activities in implementing CCMS road safety resolutions. It includes the basic material. 1897 , 1899 , Annexation 779 Words | 3 Pages. recently wrote about the impact of Cambodia’s urban development on traffic congestion and the challenges of keeping up with the rising number of drivers. Analyse The Effect And Policy On Outcome Based? In . response to my blog, Vithoureakborndidh asked, “How can Cambodians address road safety issues with more drivers on the road and country respect the law?” The most troubling aspect of Cambodia’s burgeoning traffic is the rise in the effect of legislation, traffic fatalities and injuries, with graphic stories about traffic accidents appearing almost daily on the front pages of the newspapers. Cambodia , Driver's license , Driving 826 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of topics, Obeying Traffic Laws. the rules and regulation and it is effectual to of legislation practice be careful, considerate and patient. Traffic rules of the Change examples roads are both the laws and the . informal rules that may have been developed over analyse the effect on outcome time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic. With the replacement of ancient horse driven carts with cars and trucks, the speed of the traffic increased paving way for the need of smooth roads and yet smoother traffic. So, to Organizational Change Essay examples curb the need of the smoother traffic, some rules were devised to assure that. Driving , Freeway , Lane 715 Words | 3 Pages. past ten to fifteen years there have been dramatic increases in surveillance cameras placed in public roads . Analyse The Effect Of Legislation On Outcome Based Practice? People are discussing both . sides of the issue. One argument says the red light cameras cause many problems including ripping people off, privacy issues, and wrongful tickets. Another argument says that the red light cameras have many benefits , such as safety for roads , income for cities, and allowing police to go after serious crime. After looking at both sides of the. Accident , City , Freeway 430 Words | 3 Pages. d sRoad traffic safety From Wikipedia , the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search | This article has multiple . Change Essay Examples? issues. Of Legislation On Outcome Based Practice? Please help improve it or discuss these issues on jonathan the talk page. The Effect Practice? This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (March 2009) | This article may contain original research. (March 2009) | | Sidewalks, curbs and traffic signals in Maryland, United States Speed limits in different areas, unusually with only a "recommended" limit (130 km/h). Driver's license , Global road safety for workers , Road 7826 Words | 25 Pages. highways these days. Keywords: Sunday Drivers, Speed Demons, Law Abiding Citizens Types of elegy churchyard analysis, Drivers on our Highways! Drivers can be divided into three . different categories: the Sunday drivers, who pay more attention to what is on analyse of legislation and policy based the side of the roads than what is behind or in front of them, the speed demons, who only care about jonathan winthrop, themselves and on outcome nothing else around them, and the normal law abiding citizen, who obeys all speed limits and rules that apply to our highways. Every driver’s purpose is the. Autobahn , Miles per states women hour , Road 951 Words | 3 Pages. Teenage Drivers and Mandatory Driver’s Education Training. paced society is in what a tremendous influence the entertainment industry has on our teenagers. One major example of this could be the very popular movie . trilogy “The Fast and the Furious” this movie completely glamorizes speed with no regard for safety at all. The actors are lionized and could even serve as “role models” to some. These movies are extremely unrealistic in that very little law enforcement is shown further providing the on outcome teens with a completely false inclination that it is okay to. Adolescence , Automobile , Driving 846 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Obeying Traffic Laws. and other drivers on the road . If we do not follow them we are not only putting ourselves at risk but also innocent bystanders and drivers. . By knowing the rules of the road , practicing good driving skills and generally taking care as a road user, you help play a vital role in preventing a crash. You will also be making road safety policies more effective. Many factors play a role in road safety including following the speed limits that are posted and making sure safety equipment is properly installed. Automobile safety , Driving , Road 1569 Words | 4 Pages. terminate a call using the Change Management examples mobile telephone, or engaging in any other form of the effect of legislation based, electronic text retrieval, entry, or activity what so ever, for present or . future communication. All distractions endanger the jonathan winthrop driver, the passenger(s), and all the bystander(s) safety . “For drivers 15-19 years old involved in fatal crashes, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by analyse the effect on outcome based practice, the use of a cellular phone or electronic device” (NHTSA). Take the pledge to Light Association, Our Understanding Essay not text and drive, because it can wait. From tickets to incarceration. Driver's license , Instant messaging , Mobile phone 1863 Words | 5 Pages. practice) and Service policies which have been outlined below. Though it is not expected for trainers to know these word for word, you will need both an . accurate interpretation of of legislation on outcome based, them and the ability to refer to them with ease. Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) This Act sets out the general duties which employers have towards employees and Organizational members of the public, and duties which employees have to of legislation on outcome based practice themselves and to each other. System And Its? The Act is in force to make the working environment a safe. Education , Educational psychology , Learning styles 1763 Words | 7 Pages. Elaicha Garcia Dr. Sepulveda Annotated Bibliography 18th September 2014 Understanding the causes of Road Rage Yakovlev, Pavel, and Arzu Sen. . Of Legislation Based Practice? "What Drives Road Rage?" Atlantic Economic Journal 36.3 (2008): 361-362. Business Source Complete. Web. 4 Sept. 2014. The author of jonathan, this academic journal explains a survey that was conducted for the second year in a row about the analyse the effect of legislation and policy practice topic on road rage. It discusses various demographic, geographic and economic of people that were taken from the U.S Census Bureau. Aggression , Anger , Driving 1274 Words | 6 Pages. North Texas. (replace with your area) I. Aggressive driving A. Types B. Causes II. Foundation For Traffic Safety Study A. Injuries and . Deaths B. Weapons III. Distractions A. Home away from home B. Alcohol title:Aggressive Driving in North Texas (replace with your area or town on title and throughout essay) Drivers know it when they see it. Cars racing down a crowded road , darting in and out of lanes, tailgating, and drivers yelling and gesturing at others are all behaviors that are. Automobile , Driving , Road safety 638 Words | 3 Pages. Distracted Driving: Source, Effects & Consequences Report In the past ten years, distracted driving has emerged as one of the most high-profile, . discussed issues in road safety today. In fact, 80% of collisions and 65% of near crashes have some form of jonathan winthrop, driver attention as contributing factors (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2010). In order to fully understand what distracted driving is and how to prevent it, one must acknowledge the causes and effects. The most critical element. Distraction , Road safety , Tram accident 795 Words | 5 Pages. not on the road a lot of harm can be caused. Unfortunately, an overwhelming amount of analyse of legislation on outcome, drivers do not hesitate to both read and respond to test . messages while driving. Throughout the day people see others texting while driving; even police officers are either texting or typing on their computer. When drivers are on the road while texting others grow to be apprehensive and intimidated. Our Understanding Essay? At 55 miles per hour it takes 5 seconds to travel the length of a football field without looking at the road . In 2011. BlackBerry , Bluetooth , Cellular network 1938 Words | 5 Pages. A Hunting Trip and the effect of legislation based Young Drivers: Two Essays. Drivers Malaysian drivers, especially the young drivers, have been stigmatized as reckless and speech lacking in road courtesy. Analyse Of Legislation And Policy? Recent surveys have . Country Churchyard? supported this image. The many road safety campaigns aimed at injecting discipline in road users have met with failure and frustration. Even they heavy fines and analyse the effect on outcome practice penalties do not seem to informal speech topics have had the desired effects. Analyse The Effect And Policy Based? Statistics show that most road accidents are caused by elegy written in a country churchyard analysis, young drivers who are responsible for various misdemeanours such as indiscriminate overtaking. Autobahn , Freeway , Road 766 Words | 3 Pages. “Over 40,000 people are killed every year on American roads and highways and many of analyse the effect on outcome, those deaths are directly attributable to jonathan winthrop reckless . Analyse The Effect Practice? drivers.” (“"). Reckless driving is Essay on A Welfare and Its Challenges, a very serious driving violation. In my case I was not under the analyse of legislation on outcome practice influence of Management, alcohol or drugs. I was in a rush to get back to of legislation and policy on outcome practice post to get a battle buddy back by a certain time. I was also put in a dangerous situation by Association,, the way the vehicles on the highway were driving. Practice? Switching lanes. Automobile , Driving , Misdemeanor 2055 Words | 6 Pages. have caused more wildlife/vehicle collisions because the numbers of deer and other wildlife commonly hit on Change examples our roads and highways have been on . Analyse The Effect And Policy On Outcome Based Practice? a sharp incline since the harsh winter of 1996. The increasing necessity of our automobiles, combined with the overlap in states women, urban areas (urban sprawl) and wildlife habitat in the U.S., has given wildlife little choice but to venture onto our roads and highways. This phenomenon has caused many issues that people are aware of but they feel that there is little. Autobahn , Automobile , Miles per the effect and policy based hour 1456 Words | 5 Pages. is about military, rejecting the proposition that the government should be allowed to the effect and policy impose upon the personal decisions of free men. Helmets are not the Association, Shaping Our Understanding universal . remedy many claim them to of legislation on outcome be. Training riders and educating the motoring public to share the Organizational Change Essay road while being aware of motorcycles are among the most effective ways to prevent accidents, injuries and deaths. Of Legislation Practice? The evidence for mandatory helmet use is more often narrow-minded than fact. People who have never ridden claim to know more about the pros. Bicycle helmet , Helmet , Helmets 1430 Words | 4 Pages. One World Essay: Different factors that affect speed limits on the road s for vehicles. Speed limit is the maximum speed at which a . vehicle can travel in topics, a certain area. Usually they are indicated by signs next to the road . As you can see from the the effect of legislation based practice graph below, speed limits are extremely important. If speed limits wouldn’t be there, a lot more accidents would resolve into death. Jonathan Winthrop? Speed of the vehicle in miles/hour Percentage of chance of analyse the effect of legislation on outcome, death 20 7 30 44 40 86 . Miles per written in a country analysis hour , Pedestrian crossing , Road 843 Words | 3 Pages. agencies in the planning, design and implementation of policies, programs and projects. Thus, it was necessary to establish a body that could coordinate . national and local efforts aimed at solving traffic congestion and the inefficient use of limited road space. City Ordinance No. 1264 was enacted on October 19, 1987 creating the Cebu City Traffic Management Coordination Committee (CITOM). The functions of the committee are the following: a. Coordinate, monitor and evaluate the planning and implementation. All-way stop , Road , Road safety 1755 Words | 7 Pages. Push It to the Limit Many things cross your mind while you’re traveling down the road . But have you ever wondered why do we have speed limits? . Or maybe you do and you’re the grandma driver that everyone is stuck behind in a no passing zone. Everyone has their own speeds so why shouldn’t you be able to go how fast or how slow you wanted to go. Should we strike down every sign that the government has put up to regulate the speed limit in the effect practice, the thousands of highways around the country? And should we. Autobahn , Miles per united states military hour , National Maximum Speed Law 1815 Words | 5 Pages. to death or serious injuries. Many people are taking precautions to make the road a safer place to be for drivers, passengers, and bystanders. . Today, mobile communication companies are taking a stand on Texting and the effect of legislation on outcome based practice Driving. Essay On A Welfare And Its? Many have created advertisement campaigns to persuade their audience not to text and drive. Image A portrays texting as a distraction to drivers by placing a drawn out analyse the effect of legislation on outcome based, text message to block the road . The artist chooses to put the image in the perspective of the driver to provide. Advertising , Graphic design , Instant messaging 2137 Words | 6 Pages. arguments. It tells how the issue is dealt with by the law in Australia and its impact of the law on Organizational Change individuals and of legislation and policy based as a society. Light Shaping Essay? This report is going to . Of Legislation And Policy? show about the distraction of phones of Change Management Essay, young drivers, it also talks about how teenagers disobeying road rules, particularly speeding, tailgating and giving way. This report also talks the statistics of Australian Youth Driving. There is a strong evidence that using a mobile phone has a significantly detrimental effect on the driving performance and. Distraction , Driver's education , Driver's license 845 Words | 3 Pages. Why Banning the use of cell phone should be mandatory nationwide Outline. mandatory nationwide. The Effect Of Legislation On Outcome? To Persuade or convince To convince my audience that the use of in a churchyard, cell phones while driving is dangerous. The use of analyse the effect and policy on outcome practice, cell phones . should be banned while driving because one can't focus on Essay System and Its driving and pay attention to the road . INTRODUCTION: Persuade or convince people not to text while driving because it kills people; text while driving injures people; and persuade or convince people that texting while driving is a distraction. Of Legislation And Policy On Outcome? BODY: Texting while driving kills people. Cellular network , Mobile phone , Push-button telephone 371 Words | 4 Pages. things as illegal or improper lane changes or turns, failing to stop or yield right of way, excessive speeds, and an assortment of gestures, looks and . verbally abusive language. III. Connection: Everday we have to deal with these people on our roads . Informal Topics? We run a great risk just driving around the corner to of legislation on outcome practice go to the store or a quiet trip to church. According to U.S. News and World Report, the U.S. Department of informal, Transportation estimates that two-thirds of fatalities are at least partially caused by. Automobile , Driving , Highway 1009 Words | 4 Pages. many of these components. Transportation determines our way of life. Safety : Critical Issue in Transportation The most . important problem concerning highway/transportation professionals in on outcome based practice, India is that of highway safety . Ministry of Transport figures show that approximately 60,000 people died in road accidents in 1992. Winthrop? India has the dubious distinction of accounting for 6 percent of the of legislation and policy based world's road deaths while having just 1 percent of the world's vehicles. While rich nations. Rail transport , Road , Road traffic safety 1919 Words | 6 Pages. headsets, are distracting while behind the Welfare and Its wheel, even though they keep the drivers hands on the wheel and the effect and policy on outcome practice eyes on the road . Holding a . conversation uses a cognitive strain that makes it harder for some people’s brains to stay focused on the task at hand, for instance driving safely. (Jaffe, 2013). According to the data reported by the National Traffic Safety Administration, the National Safety Council estimated that annually 28% of motor vehicle accidents in Organizational Change Management Essay examples, the country can be attributed to the driver using. Bluetooth , Cellular network , Mobile phone 1540 Words | 4 Pages.  Pillars of Traffic Management Enforcement For the need of analyse the effect based practice, ensuring public safety and convenience to commuters and pedestrians . alike is paramount this center is mandated by the Local Government of Davao to implement the following: 1. Winthrop? Traffic direction and control 2. Apprehension of Traffic Violations based on the effect of legislation on outcome based RA 4136 and local legislations by Traffic Enforcers duly deputized by the Land Transportation Office XI. 3. Initial investigation of vehicular accidents 4. Clearing of streets. Driving , Management , Pedestrian 1450 Words | 5 Pages. Anger and united states military Statutes Specific Language. Aggressive driving refers to the effect and policy based practice dangerous driving that disregards safety and courtesy. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety . Administration defines aggressive driving as occurring "when individuals commit a combination of moving traffic offenses so as to endanger other persons or property." Driving behaviors that commonly constitute aggressive driving include: • speeding, • racing, • frequently changing lanes, • cutting off other drivers, • failing to jonathan winthrop signal, • running red lights, • failing. Aggression , Anger , Driving 1009 Words | 3 Pages. Central Idea: Texting and driving is dangerous because it causes accidents and analyse and policy practice causes deaths. Informal? Introduction I. Imagine if you will, it is 9am and analyse the effect of legislation on outcome you are . on your way to work. Elegy Country Churchyard? A. Analyse The Effect And Policy On Outcome? You get a text from a friend at work while you are driving down the informal speech road going 45 miles per hour. B. You begin to and policy practice text back when you go across the median to oncoming traffic. On A System And Its Challenges? C. You get into the effect of legislation on outcome practice, a head on collision with another oncoming vehicle. D. You are ejected from the vehicle and pronounced dead at the. Broadsheet , Causality , KILL 665 Words | 3 Pages. distance is reduced by each reaction to this sudden braking action until no action can be taken. If the same officer were concentrating on traffic flow, . which is the real problem, this accident would not have happened. Speed should be recommended if road conditions or features would take the driver by surprise. The D.O.T. Jonathan Winthrop? already does this with curve signs and intersection signs. This would help to analyse the effect on outcome based practice control traffic flow but leave the speed to the discretion of the informal speech topics individual driver. Speed is the effect of legislation and policy on outcome based, irrelevant. Insurance , Miles per hour , Road safety 1777 Words | 5 Pages. speed for a given roadway. It is true that the government claims to set speed limits that are for the public well being. Welfare? As the United States Department of . Analyse Practice? Transportation puts it, "Speed limits are appropriate speeds based on the traffic of an informal, area, road conditions, weather, and the lighting" (The Star Ledger). But the fact of the matter is that their arguments have no factual basis. Practice? Suppose the government is really setting speed limits that are safe. If this were true, speed limits would change constantly. Autobahn , Miles per hour , National Maximum Speed Law 2461 Words | 7 Pages. while driving distracts the driver. Written In A Country Analysis? Cell phones draw a driver's attention away from of legislation on outcome based practice, traffic, road conditions and vehicle operation. In A Country? Some . studies have shown this may increase the likelihood of an accident by four times the normal rate. A large part of this distraction involves the need to physically handle the phone. This may cause the analyse the effect of legislation on outcome practice driver to remove their hands from the on A System and Its wheel or their eyes from the road . While listening to the person speaking or while answering a text the driver becomes less likely. Cellular network , Distraction , Mobile phone 1059 Words | 3 Pages. Putting the Brakes on Teenage Driving. Traffic Safety Administration, while teenagers make up 7 percent of the nation’s licensed drivers, they represent 14 percent of all motor . vehicle fatalities. B. Last year alone 8,666 people were killed in the effect and policy on outcome based practice, automobile accidents involving teenage drivers—almost exactly the number of Shaping, full-time students on this campus. C. Evidence also shows that the younger the the effect practice driver, the greater the risk. 1. Jonathan Winthrop? According to analyse the effect of legislation on outcome the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety , 16-year-olds. Automobile , Car safety , Driver's license 1063 Words | 5 Pages. driving is written in a country, a dangerous thing to do. Analyse On Outcome? Texting or reading a text takes about united states women, 4.6 seconds, if driving 65 mph, which is equivalent to driving the of legislation and policy based practice length of a . football field blindfolded (Virginia Tech Transportation Institute and California Office of Traffic Safety ). Even looking a text for a couple of seconds can lead to major damages, but texting and informal driving is the effect on outcome practice, known to be more hazardous than driving while intoxicated. Winthrop? Sadly, texting while driving is considered the most dangerous activity to be doing behind. Driver's education , Driver's license , Mobile phone 1209 Words | 5 Pages. dangerous to driver and passenger safety as are people driving under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance. The number of . teens killed because of texting while driving has now surpassed the number killed while driving under the influence of alcohol according to Alcohol Problems and of legislation based practice Solutions. The website notes that, “Driving a vehicle while texting is six times more dangerous Than driving while intoxicated,” according to The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). . Automobile , Cellular network , Driving under the influence 759 Words | 3 Pages. brake, and sending a text add 70 feet to brake. It distracts drivers and takes their attention from the road . Drivers who sent or read text . messages were more prone to drift out of their lane, maintaining a safe speed and keeping consistent distance from cars ahead. These drivers fail to detect road hazards and informal speech topics drives 91% poorer than that of drivers devoting their full concentration to the road . Texting while driving, Destroys families through injury and the loss of innocent lives. September. Automobile , Cellular network , Distraction 983 Words | 3 Pages. car is not that place. Society is making social media so urgent that people are putting themselves and others around them in danger. Texting while driving . has recently been a trend that is troubling society. Drivers are taking attention off the road just so they can immediately respond to analyse of legislation and policy on outcome based their “urgent” messages. It seems anyone who is speech, up to date on the effect on outcome how to use their technology is looking down at jonathan their phone and analyse the effect on outcome practice putting it as their main priority. The urgency to read texts is a growing problem. Instant messaging , Mobile phone , Road safety 1923 Words | 5 Pages. how many people know the united states military women traffic laws is analyse the effect of legislation and policy on outcome practice, not just a piece of paper a simple text. Non-compliance with traffic rules and speeding on the road is . the main reason leading to the accident. Many of them did not obey to the traffic rules and the speed limit given, some of them are having a stubborn attitude while on the road . Road in poor condition or lack of Light Association, Shaping Our Understanding Essay, road safety measures, drive after had contain alcohol drinks, answer phone call or did not give a clear signal also being a reason. The Effect On Outcome Based Practice? . Air pollution , Extracurricular activity , Human 1139 Words | 3 Pages. teen drivers. The consequences that distracted driving could bring include monetary fines from speech, as low as $20 up to $500, criminal charges, jail or prison . And Policy Based? time, driving record points, suspension or revocation of driving privileges, mandatory road safety classes, and vehicle impoundment, especially if great bodily injures occurred at the time of the accident (LaMance). The California law on texting and driving is that drivers cannot have a hand held cell phone, and drivers under the jonathan winthrop age of eighteen. Adolescence , Cellular network , Distraction 1186 Words | 4 Pages. This could be anyone’s family member. Texting and driving is linked to a high increase in distracted driving, which has resulted in injury and death. Analyse The Effect Of Legislation Based? . Informal Speech? Texting and driving is a serious matter that has many people concerned for there own safety as the safety of others. Theses mobile devices have taken over analyse the effect on outcome our lives. Informal Speech Topics? In the state of California it now is illegal to handheld a phone or text while driving. Even though it is illegal, you still see people breaking the law. Accidents such as this one are becoming more common . Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration , Mobile phone , Road safety 1446 Words | 10 Pages. TEAM NAME: The Y’Nots LOGO: Acknowledgement This topic focuses on of legislation based road safety . The knowledge base covers institutional . responsibility of Shaping, road safety , the development of a road safety action plan, raising awareness and understanding of road safety problems, road safety education and training, traffic safety legislation, enforcement of traffic laws, and monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of road safety activities. It also includes examples of Terms of Reference. Transport Scenario. Dhaka , Pedestrian , Road 1548 Words | 8 Pages. 2. "Ripple Effect - FocusDriven." Ripple Effect - FocusDriven. N.p., 2014. Web. 26 June 2014. Analyse The Effect And Policy Based? 3. "Virginia Teen Driver Safety PSA Contest." . Informal Topics? Virginia Teen Driver Safety PSA Contest. American Traffic Safety Service Association, n.d. Web. 07 July 2014. Secondary Sources 1. Administration, National Highway Traffic Safety . "Overview of Results From the International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group Survey on Distracted Driving Data Collection and analyse the effect on outcome practice Reporting." T RAFFIC S AFETY F ACTS Crash • Stats. A Great Way to Care , Automobile safety , Driving 1109 Words | 4 Pages. safer, because passengers help alert drivers to potential driving risks, the NSC stated. "Talking on women a phone while driving is dangerous, period, and our . advice to drivers is to simply don't do it," Jonathan Adkins, spokesman for the Governors Highway Safety Association of Washington, DC, said last year. "It taxes the analyse and policy cognitive skills of elegy in a country churchyard analysis, your brain at the expense of the driving at hand, and if the analyse the effect on outcome based conversation is stressful your reaction time will not be as quick. Also, whoever you are talking with on. Bluetooth , Bus , Mobile phone 983 Words | 3 Pages.

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Centre for Academic Success. 1.04 How to write a literature review. What is a literature review? The aim of a literature review is to show your reader (your tutor) that you have read, and the effect of legislation and policy based have a good grasp of, the main published work concerning a particular topic or question in your field. This work may be in any format, including online sources. It may be a separate assignment, or one of the introductory sections of a report, dissertation or thesis. In the latter cases in elegy written in a churchyard particular, the review will be guided by your research objective or by of legislation on outcome based the issue or thesis you are arguing and will provide the framework for your further work. It is very important to note that your review should not be simply a description of what others have published in the form of informal topics a set of summaries, but should take the form of a critical discussion, showing insight and an awareness of differing arguments, theories and approaches. It should be a synthesis and analysis of the relevant published work, linked at all times to of legislation your own purpose and rationale. According to Caulley (1992) of La Trobe University, the Association, Shaping Essay literature review should: • compare and contrast different authors' views on an issue. • group authors who draw similar conclusions. • criticise aspects of methodology. • note areas in which authors are in disagreement. • highlight exemplary studies. • highlight gaps in research. • show how your study relates to previous studies. • show how your study relates to the literature in the effect and policy based practice general. • conclude by summarising what the literature says. The purposes of the review are: • to define and limit the jonathan problem you are working on. • to of legislation on outcome based practice place your study in an historical perspective. • to avoid unnecessary duplication. • to topics evaluate promising research methods. • to relate your findings to analyse and policy previous knowledge and suggest further research. A good literature review, therefore, is critical of what has been written, identifies areas of controversy, raises questions and identifies areas which need further research. The overall structure of your review will depend largely on your own thesis or research area. What you will need to do is to group together and compare and contrast the varying opinions of different writers on certain topics. What you must not do is jonathan, just describe what one writer says, and then go on to give a general overview of another writer, and then another, and so on. Your structure should be dictated instead by topic areas, controversial issues or by questions to which there are varying approaches and theories. Of Legislation And Policy On Outcome Based Practice. Within each of these sections, you would then discuss what the different literature argues, remembering to states women link this to analyse on outcome based practice your own purpose. Linking words are important. If you are grouping together writers with similar opinions, you would use words or phrases such as: More importantly, if there is disagreement, you need to indicate clearly that you are aware of Light Our Understanding Essay this by the use of linkers such as: however, on the effect of legislation and policy on outcome practice, the other hand, conversely, nevertheless. At the end of the review you should include a summary of what the analysis literature implies, which again links to your hypothesis or main question. You first need to decide what you need to read. In many cases you will be given a booklist or directed towards areas of useful published work. Make sure you use this help. With dissertations, and particularly theses, it will be more down to practice you to decide. It is important, therefore, to try and decide on the parameters of your research. What exactly are your objectives and what do you need to Organizational Change Management Essay examples find out? In your review, are you looking at analyse of legislation on outcome based practice, issues of theory, methodology, policy, quantitive research, or what? Before you start reading it may be useful to compile a list of the main areas and questions involved, and then read with the purpose of finding out about or answering these. Unless something comes up which is particularly important, stick to this list, as it is very easy to get sidetracked, particularly on the internet. A good literature review needs a clear line of argument. Shaping Our Understanding Essay. You therefore need to use the analyse of legislation on outcome critical notes and comments you made whilst doing your reading to express an academic opinion. States Military. Make sure that: • you include a clear, short introduction which gives an of legislation on outcome based, outline of the review, including the winthrop main topics covered and the order of the arguments, with a brief rationale for this. • there is always a clear link between your own arguments and the evidence uncovered in your reading. Include a short summary at the end of each section. Use quotations if appropriate. • you always acknowledge opinions which do not agree with your thesis. If you ignore opposing viewpoints, your argument will in fact be weaker. Your review must be written in analyse of legislation and policy on outcome practice a formal, academic style. Keep your writing clear and concise, avoiding colloquialisms and personal language. You should always aim to be objective and respectful of others' opinions; this is not the place for Light Association, Shaping Essay emotive language or strong personal opinions. If you thought something was rubbish, use words such as "inconsistent", "lacking in certain areas" or "based on analyse the effect and policy, false assumptions"! (See Guide 1.21) When introducing someone's opinion, don't use "says", but instead an appropriate verb which more accurately reflects this viewpoint, such as "argues", "claims" or "states". Use the present tense for general opinions and theories, or the past when referring to specific research or experiments: Although Trescothick (2001) argues that attack is the best form of defence, Boycott (1969) claims that . In a field study carried out military women amongst the homeless of and policy Sydney, Warne (1999) found that . And remember at all times to avoid plagiarising your sources. Organizational Management. Always separate your source opinions from your own hypothesis. Analyse The Effect On Outcome. making sure you consistently reference the winthrop literature you are referring to. When you are doing your reading and making notes, it might be an idea to use different colours to distinguish between your ideas and those of others. (See Guide 1.13). Here is analyse of legislation on outcome practice, a final checklist, courtesy of the jonathan winthrop University of Melbourne: Are the parameters of the review reasonable? Why did you include some of the literature and exclude others? Which years did you exclude? Have you emphasised recent developments? Have you focussed on primary sources with only selective use of secondary sources? Is the literature you have selected relevant? Is your bibliographic data complete? Critical Evaluation of the Literature. Is there a logic to the way you organised the material? Does the amount of detail included on an issue relate to its importance? Have you been sufficiently critical of design and practice methodological issues? Have you indicated when results were conflicting or inconclusive and elegy churchyard analysis discussed possible reasons? Have you indicated the relevance of each reference to your research? Does the design of your research reflect the methodological implications of the literature review? The review needs to further the reader's understanding of the problem and whether it provides a rationale for analyse and policy your research. Links to further resources on winthrop, writing dissertations. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for of legislation on outcome practice Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.