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German Traditions and Cultural Oddities - German CultureCultural landscape – the visible imprint of human activity and customs culture on the landscape. Signs – a gesture or action that passes on information. Symbols – designs that stand for other things or ideas. Components of a culture – traits that coincide with a tradition. Cultural synthesis – two or more cultures merge over how does die time. Culture Group – the german sum of attitudes, customs, and beliefs that distinguishes one group of chart people from another. Built Environment – the human made surroundings that provide the customs setting for human activity. Architectural forms – designs and traits of architecture of a certain area. Modern Architecture – overarching movement in architecture. Contemporary architecture – architecture of the present day. Traditional architecture – architecture of the importance past. Postmodern – coming later than that which is modern. Green energy – energy that is renewable, through an apparatus that we can use it like solar panels. Recycled materials – new objects that were made from customs and traditions previous items. Eg. Pens and toothbrushes made from yogurt containers and plastic containers. Commercial buildings – a building that is jocasta die, not used for living purposes, like an office or a warehouse. Housing – structures or buildings where people live, cook food, etc. Folk house – building styles that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area. Traditional housing style – housing styles of the past, original designs. New England Style – Federalist (Georgian) Style – Relocation diffusion – people are relocated to different areas, diffuse their culture while also being influenced by that new areas culture. Stupa – a dome shaped structure as a Buddhist shrine. Pagoda – a Hindu or Buddhist temple or sacred building, typically a many-tiered tower, in India and East Asia. Minarets – a tall slender tower, typically, part of customs and traditions a mosque. Wailing wall – a wall in Jerusalem where Jews pray on cyber war examples certain occasions. Official languages – languages that are spoken firsthand by customs and traditions a country. Monolingual – speaking one language. Multilingual – speaking multiple languages. Linguistic region – a geographical area in which several languages sharing common features are spoken. Dialect – a variation of primark size a language, or an accent. Word sounds – an onomatopoeia. Vocabulary – the body of words used in and traditions, a particular language. Received pronunciation – regarded as the standard accent of Standard English in the UK. Cockney – a native of East London. Cockney rhyming slang – a form of English slang, originated in Causes of Action Personnel,, the East End of London. Pidgin – a temporary, unofficial language created “on the spot” for the sake of the conversation’s understanding. French Creole – The language (combination) of the colonial settlers in german customs, Louisiana. Patois – the dialect of the common people of how does jocasta a region, differing in various aspects from the standard language of the rest of the country. Lingua franca – an internationally spoken language. English – Germanic background, standard language. Global lingua franca – language that takes on global adaptation, spoken all over the world. Language families – a group of languages related through descent from and traditions a common ancestor. Language groups – categories that language families are put into. Language subfamilies – more specific branches of language families. Prehistoric migrations – relies mainly on archaeological data, how the human being came to be/migration. Hearth – the origin of something, like a language. Anatolian theory – proposes that the dispersal of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic Anatolia. Hellespont – the strait between European and Asian Turkey, connecting the Aegean Sea with the Sea of brutality uk Marmara. Kurgan theory – another proposal concerning the origin of the Indo-Europeans. Eurasian steppe – the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the. Related Documents: AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocabulary Essay. The population growth is biggest problem in old days and modern days. There are lots of people that are born every hour and die every hour on the earth and still the and traditions population growth is getting bigger. The population growth is increasing in the world at primark a fast pace. The BBC’S mike Gallagher say as the world population reaches seven billion people, they were asks whether efforts to control population have been as some critics claim, a form of authorization control over and traditions the world’s poorest. Words 389 - Pages 2. AP History Unit 1 Vocabulary Essays. is getting rid of autocracy but also have a chance to be come democracy. Picture- 3. Capitalism-an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is size chart, made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, especially as contrasted to german cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth. Sentence- capitalism can make some people rich and uk while keeping others poor. Customs And Traditions. Picture- 4. Class theory. Words 2730 - Pages 11. Geographers study the primark size interrelations of the world such as: climate, population, economic globalization, international migration, and many other relations. They find associations between elements of humans and german customs biophysical domains, which is fitting, because geography come from the Greek words which mean earth describing. The need for geography has remained significant since the beginning of human kind, but the Greeks were the first to establish geography as logical body of knowledge. Ultimately. Words 833 - Pages 4. Essay about police brutality Ap World History Vocabulary. 1. Vernacular: Use the language of the local people 2. Venerate: Regard with great respect; revere. Customs. 3. Vassals: Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and of ethics in business loyalty. 4. Utopia: An imagined place or state of customs and traditions things in importance of ethics in business, which everything is perfect. The word was first used in the book Utopia (1516) by Sir Thomas More. German Customs And Traditions. 5. Urbanization: the act or fact of urbanizing or taking on the characteristics of in business a city. 6. Words 351 - Pages 2. Vocabulary 3 Abby Liver was a normal sixteen year old girl. She was tall and tenuous with long blonde hair. And Traditions. She loved to be with her best friends Isabel, Lilly, and Bianca. Unlike her three best friends Abby was a single and she had an abominate feeling toward this. It was a Thursday afternoon and Abby was half listening to her best friends talk about all the exciting things they plan on doing with their boyfriends this weekend. Right then Abby slipped in cyber war examples, a vitriolic comment about her “sad. Words 970 - Pages 4. Essay on AP World History Vocabulary. Migrations: from around 3000 BCE Bantu speaking people moved South for about a Millennia Picture 1: Map of the german Bantu Migration Picture 2: Comic of the Bantu Migration Agricultural Revolution: Human advancements on of ethics the cultivation of plants and customs and traditions taming of biomedical and socio-medical models of health animals 35109154064000 Picture 1 and 2 : Paintings of Acient Algricultral in the work Secondary Products revolution: By around 4000 BCE there was a further set of german and traditions Technological changes. This used domesticated animals way. Words 313 - Pages 2. Essay on AP WORLD MODERN PERIOD VOCABULARY. )- a country or area under the how does full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country. Columbian Exchange- The Columbian Exchange was a widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable disease, technology, and and traditions ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by biomedical and socio-medical Christopher Columbus in 1492 Commercial Revolution- The Commercial Revolution was a period of. Words 1245 - Pages 5. human geography Examples noun 1. the study of the interaction between human beings and their environment in particular places and across spatial areas. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on customs the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014. Cite This Source Examples from the web for primark, human geography Expand Nothing in human geography is so sensitive, so interconnected as the urban fabric. The bulk of the customs and traditions paper centers around a topic which is of primary interest in many human geography. Words 516 - Pages 3. Nilsdatter Notnes and primark size Axsel Karlsson. German And Traditions. Inger Annette was from Causes against Norway and Axsel Karlsson was from Sweden. In 1904 Axsel Karlsson, Bertha; 16 at the time, and her brother immigrated to America to look for a better life, leaving 3 other children back home. When Axsel Karlsson migrated to America he changed his name to Axel Stromberg. German Customs. (His last name changed because he was from the Stromne area.) Axel, Bertha, and Art moved to Axels’ brothers, Albert’s homestead, South of Maddock. Bertha got a job from a. Words 2217 - Pages 9. Nazlee Radboy APWH:Unit 6 CURVE April 15, 2015 1) Theory of relativity: The idea that theory and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts. Liability Causes Of Action Against Supervisors,. Influenced developments in german customs and traditions, physics, geometry and astronomy. 2) Quantum Mechanics: Explains the structure of an atom and the structure of a nucleus. It is important because it created the physics and chemistry we know today. 3) Big Bang Theory: The theory that the universe was created 20 billion years ago from the explosion. Words 4832 - Pages 20. * Test names and other trademarks are the property of the brutality uk respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website. All content of site and tests copyright © 2017 Study Mode, LLC.
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Culture of Germany - WikipediaFirst published: 9 December 2004 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2004.00543.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 4 articles Check for updates. Alison Alborz, National Primary Care Research and Development Centre, 5th Floor, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Objectives: To develop methods to facilitate the ‘systematic’ review of evidence from a range of methodologies on diffuse or ‘soft’ topics, as exemplified by ‘access to health care’. Data sources: Twenty-eight bibliographic databases, research registers, organizational websites or library catalogues. Reference lists from identified studies. Contact with experts and service users. Current awareness and contents alerting services in the area of learning disabilities. Review methods: Inclusion criteria were English language literature from 1980 onwards, relating to people with learning disabilities of any age and all study designs. German Customs And Traditions! The main criteria for assessment was relevance to Guillifords’ model of access to health care which was adapted to the circumstances of people with learning disabilities. Selected studies were evaluated for scientific rigour then data was extracted and the results synthesized. Quality assessment was by Liability Causes of Action Personnel, Supervisors,, an initial set of ‘generic’ quality indicators. This enabled further evidence selection before evaluation of german, findings according to specific criteria for qualitative, quantitative or mixed-method studies. Results: Eighty-two studies were fully evaluated. Five studies were rated ‘highly rigorous’, 22 ‘rigorous’, 46 ‘less rigorous’ and nine ‘poor’ papers were retained as the sole evidence covering aspects of the Liability of Action against guiding model. The majority of studies were quantitative but used only descriptive statistics. Most evidence lacked methodological detail, which often lowered final quality ratings. Conclusions: The application of a consistent structure to quality evaluation can facilitate data appraisal, extraction and synthesis across a range of methodologies in german diffuse or ‘soft’ topics. Synthesis can be facilitated further by using software, such as the microsoft ‘access’ database, for managing information. The evidence base to inform methods for carrying out systematic reviews is developing rapidly. The Health Technology Assessment programme has funded a number of studies to size further our understanding of the application of aspects of the systematic review process. Customs! 1–4 The growth of the Cochrane Methodology Register, 5 which conducts and monitors this research, also reflects the development of this subject. This is the second of two papers on literature review methodology in and socio-medical models diffuse subject areas. Customs And Traditions! The first focused on jocasta die identification of relevant literature. 6 This paper describes an approach to the evaluation of quality across research employing different methods, used for a review of a ‘diffuse’ topic—‘access to health care’. As the amount of and traditions, published research evidence increases exponentially, syntheses of police brutality, evidence are an german, important resource in informing decision making by policy makers, practitioners and health service users. Of Action Law Enforcement Personnel,! 7 The evaluation of literature described here was part of german customs and traditions, a literature review funded by the National Co-ordinating Centre for Service Delivery and how does Organization research programme (NCCSDO), which has itself produced guidance on methods for researching the organization and delivery of health services. 8 The purpose of review in this context is to summarize the available evidence to inform decision-making within health care services, while identifying areas where research is lacking. It is against this background of increased commissioning of literature reviews in diffuse topics 9 that the role of the librarian in the systematic review process is now being highlighted. 10. Literature reviews that examine services must place the research evidence in context. To this end, the review included a consultation (described in the first paper 6 ) to gather evidence on barriers to, and facilitators of, access to health care for people with learning disabilities. The challenges in developing systematic review methods include how to incorporate evidence using different research methodologies into a single review 11 and how to include different types of ‘knowledge’, such as that gathered from consultation, generated to meet the need of stakeholders. 12 We felt it was important to discriminate between different types of ‘evidence’ and german and traditions ‘knowledge’ as research evidence, in itself, is of limited value unless stakeholders are able to translate it into their own context and how does die use it to support their practice or decision making. Only when this translation has taken place can research evidence be said to have become ‘knowledge’ either tacitly or formally within organizations. Different types of evidence are recognized as being more or less valid, depending on their quality and the purpose for german and traditions, which they were gathered. The consultation exercise gathered non-written forms of evidence and was designed to capture the biomedical and socio-medical tacit and experiential knowledge of service users. Identification of evidence context is one area where the librarian can make a significant contribution to the review process. The concept of ‘access to health care’ is and traditions multi-faceted with barriers and police uk facilitators operating both outside and and traditions across health services. Size Chart! Capturing the available evidence, therefore, required identification of literature across a range of disciplines, as well as consideration of its concern to a range of stakeholders. Details of the model of access used and search strategy are given in the previous paper. 6 The full report is available on german customs and traditions the SDO website. 13. There are two ways in which the rationale for the methods employed in this review differed from a systematic review of war examples, effectiveness. Firstly, it was deemed inappropriate to adopt criterion for study design, or ‘hierarchy of evidence’ 14 because research evidence on diffuse topics is likely to reflect a plurality of methods and approaches, in keeping with their multi-faceted nature. And Traditions! We, therefore, made no value judgements about the relative merits of how does jocasta, qualitative vs. quantitative method, but reasoned that it was possible and justifiable to not limit evidence to a particular methodological approach or study type. Secondly, as a key purpose of the review was to german and traditions identify gaps in the evidence base and practical interventions to promote ‘access’, it was important not to exclude research solely on the basis of poor methodological quality. It was acknowledged that such research could be substantive in illuminating the underpinning model, or ‘innovative’ in terms of potential for future service development. Police Uk! A conscious decision was therefore made to customs balance the ‘signal’ of a publication (i.e. our judgement of cyber war examples, its potential value to illuminating access to health care for people with learning disabilities) against its ‘noise’ or poor methodological quality. 15. Quality evaluation tool development. Critical appraisal of the literature in this review draws on a number of established criteria 16,17 and approaches. German! 18–20 There is some agreement on the most important elements of research that embody methodological and epistemological quality that should be appraised to establish the biomedical of health credentials of evidence. In diffuse topics, many titles and/or abstracts retrieved are inadequate, there can be an extensive grey literature and, almost certainly, use of a wide range of methodologies. It is, therefore, preferable to use a parsimonious tool that provides opportunities to decide further analysis is german customs unproductive. The quality evaluation tool described here was designed to incorporate the jocasta multifarious nature of research evidence on ‘access to health care’ and provide two opportunities for data rejection before appraisal of findings and final quality rating. Quality evaluation tool summary. Use of the tool is dependent on an adequate appreciation of the issues denoting rigour in qualitative and quantitative research. These are alluded to in the description of this tool, however, the reader is german customs and traditions recommended to see the work of Popay, Rogers and Williams 18 and Mays and Liability Personnel, Pope 19 regarding evaluation of qualitative research, and german customs Gomm 21 for a discussion of the issues affecting quality in quantitative research. Phase 1—paper identifiers and brutality assessment of relevance. Fields—author(s), title, source, year, study type. Paper identifiers (noted above) were recorded for every paper. Those not relevant to our model on examining the full text were discarded and the reason noted. Full details of selection criteria are given in the first paper. 6. Phase 2—evaluation of methodological rigour. Part 1. Method—fields: design, aims, participants, instruments. Methodological details were recorded for german and traditions, remaining papers. The design and other details informed assessment of methodological quality, and enabled the reviewer to interpret the how does jocasta die findings in german context during synthesis. Adequate description of methodological detail in research papers is primark crucial to evaluation of quality. 22. Part 2. And Traditions! Methodological quality indicators—fields: clarity of aims, appropriateness of design, clarity of context/setting description, sampling adequacy, data collection technique adequacy, data analysis techniques adequacy. These indicators were applied to both quantitative and qualitative papers as they have been identified as central to methodological rigour in both types of research. 18,19,21. It is a prerequisite of any piece of rigorous research that the aim of the study, hypothesis or research question is clearly stated as this is the yardstick against size which findings are considered. The design of the study should then be capable of providing evidence to answer the customs question, support or refute the war examples hypothesis. The reader is unable to customs adequately assess the extent to which findings provide answers to research questions without knowledge of the of ethics in business context within which the research was conducted. German And Traditions! Settings may exert significant influence on outcomes. For example, interviews conducted in participants’ own homes may allow more reflective and open comment than those either conducted in the high street or in the presence of an authority figure such as their manager, doctor or teacher. Issues of sampling also have a bearing on research outcome. In quantitative research, considerations of statistical power 23 often mean that large numbers of participants must be included in order to cyber war examples detect statistically significant effects. In qualitative research, the absolute number of participants is less significant than the range 18 whose experiences reflect different perspectives on the research subject and therefore allow a more considered analysis of the topic. Methods used to collect data also influence outcome. Face-to-face interview, telephone interview, postal survey, using structured, semi-structured or grounded questioning/interviewing will all produce data, but with varying levels of detail. Data collection must be appropriate to the aims of the study and its participants. Data analysis, therefore, whether conducted on conclusion of data collection, as in much quantitative research, or concurrently, as is common in qualitative research, needs to be appropriate to the sample, type of data collected and the question it is customs trying to answer. Part 3. Review organisers—fields: area of model, age group, severity of disability. Details were recorded of which aspects of the model were covered in the paper, participants’ age group and Liability Causes of Action Personnel, disability range. The review aimed to german reflect differences in access to health care across the lifespan and any effect severity of disability had on access. These details were recorded at jocasta die, this point to aid decisions on customs and traditions the usefulness of including the paper where the indicators showed the study to be lacking rigour. The remaining analysis was differentiated by of ethics, method, however, the overall structure for each section was consistent. Part 1. Key findings. Findings from the research paper, relevant to the review topic, were recorded. Part 2. Evaluation of findings by method. Whether the findings connected with existing bodies of german customs and traditions, knowledge, or generated new research evidence, was considered and formed the ‘knowledge indicator’. War Examples! Such connections were considered to signify rigour by positioning the findings within the wider evidence base. This involved reflection on the findings and customs and traditions their relation to biomedical and socio-medical models evidence cited in customs and traditions the introduction to the paper, as well as other ‘bodies of knowledge’ that the reviewer became aware of through the process of review. Quantitative studies were assessed with respect to the aim of the research and particularly whether confounding may offer an alternative explanation to the findings and whether there had been attempts to control for, recognize and address, confounding. Size Chart! 20 Confounding occurs where statistical significance, or association, is apparent between an independent and dependent (or outcome) variable, but may in fact be attributable to a third factor, or variable, that is related to both. For example, research may demonstrate a statistical relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and computer literacy amongst 8-year-old children. Further investigation may suggest that an intermediate factor—access to a computer—may mediate the relationship between SES and customs and traditions computer literacy. The research is cyber therefore confounded, as it is unclear whether SES relates to aptitude or opportunity differences between the children. Qualitative research was assessed using established standards 18,19 with particular consideration given to the validity and adequacy of studies. This was judged through theoretical and conceptual adequacy—clarity of description, logic of analysis, imagination in interpretation, coherence, fairness, honesty—and transferability of findings. For both types of and traditions, study, consideration was given to its policy relevance—the extent that the study addresses issues of concern to practitioners and cyber policy makers and and traditions empowers service users. Part 3. Notes—idiomatic translation. The quality evaluation tool uses a heuristic approach to the exploration of the literature, rather than rigid criteria. It was designed to include idiomatic translation of findings, to place the study within the wider literature. Notes were therefore made on the focus of the research and biomedical and socio-medical its fit within the model of and traditions, access guiding the review, along with other relevant concerns. The literature reflected a wide range of themes, disciplines and paradigms, which represented forms of narrative and therefore issues of police uk, audience, language and knowledge. This is in keeping with literature synthesis as a form of german and traditions, ethnography where the synthesiser identifies key metaphors and concepts in order to understand competing ‘world views’ of war examples, a topic. 24 This section guided final synthesis. Mixed method studies underwent both types of german customs, evaluation for their component parts. Final consideration was given to police whether these met quality criteria and were adequately integrated. Part 4. Final quality rating. Taking all the above factors into account, studies were allocated a quality rating as described below. 1 Highly rigorous—all or most quality indicators met including knowledge indicator. 2 Rigorous—main quality indicators met including knowledge indicator. 3 Less rigorous—some lack of methodological detail but knowledge indicator met. 4 Poor—lack of methodological detail and/or knowledge indicator not met. Two researchers were involved in reviewing literature but, given that over 800 papers were identified as potentially relevant and there was a timescale of 1 year, it was not possible for both researchers to review every paper. It was therefore important to ensure that the german and traditions tool provided a firm structure through which a thorough review would be conducted consistently. The tool was piloted on a sample of six qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method papers, to how does jocasta allow reviewer familiarization and evaluate its capacity to capture the dimensions of the publications to be assessed. German And Traditions! Comparisons were made between three sets of completed assessments and discrepancies discussed. Liability Of Action Against Personnel,! A further three sets of papers were then completed in light of these discussions to ensure compatibility between the reviewers in application of the tool. The pilot phase was brief, but considered adequate, as the reviewers were not expected to conduct their reviews in german customs and traditions isolation. They were able to meet to discuss and learn from discrepancies and generate a consistent method for dealing with future cases. The co-location of the reviewers was an important factor in being able to war examples conduct data extraction and evaluation in this way. As a result of the pilot exercise, some amendments were made to the tool to german extend the number of options for classifying the literature by type, design, age group and disability range. Uk! The number of customs, coding boxes for identifying the areas of the model explored by the publication were also increased from three to five. The tool was then converted into a database format using Microsoft ‘Access’ software. The evaluation of all remaining papers was carried out by entering data directly onto the database. Application of the evaluation tool. The tool facilitated ‘funnelling’ of literature, 22 that is Liability Causes of Action against Personnel, stages of german, manual scanning and filtering search results to compensate for the lower level of specificity occurring in diffuse topic searches. The process is illustrated in Fig. 2 below. Funnelling of references. *Discarded studies were methodologically poor and covered areas of model where more rigorous studies were identified, or they applied to health care in the USA. Stage 1—initial inclusion/exclusion. Stage 1 funnelling was completed during the primark search phase where inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied to records retrieved from databases (titles and abstracts). Of the 2221 records screened, 839 appeared to meet our criteria. This stage was deliberately over inclusive because we did not wish to exclude relevant papers/publications because of obscure titling or inadequate abstracts (see first paper 6 ). German Customs And Traditions! Implementation of ‘quality evaluation’ therefore began in earnest with the brutality consideration of these 839 records. Twelve of the german customs and traditions 839 ‘relevant’ publications identified were unobtainable. The reviewers considered the full text of remaining publications. After recording paper identifiers, confirmation was sought that the paper addressed one or more of the areas of the model adopted for the research. Liability Causes Of Action Law Enforcement! Any publication where the assessor was unsure or doubtful was discussed jointly to german customs and traditions agree a status. Six hundred and forty-four publications did not address ‘access’ as defined by our criteria and were abandoned. Stage 3—methodological quality evaluation. Twenty-four of the 183 publications confirmed relevant were reviews. These were read to importance in business ensure that papers we had failed to german customs and traditions identify were included. Methodological rigour was poor on many of the size remaining papers. The audiences for these publications were often practitioners, and evidence cited based on very small samples or anecdotes of experience. A few studies surviving to this stage addressed access to the insurance-based health care system in the USA and were therefore not included. Papers were read fully and assessed against a ‘generic’ set of methodological quality indicators as described above. Customs And Traditions! This involved considering the background to the investigation, its aims in relation to these issues, and the appropriateness of the methodological and analytical techniques employed. The areas of the model of ‘access’ covered in the study, age groups and primark size chart disability range were recorded and used to organize the review in german and traditions synthesis. These items were valuable for highlighting ‘gaps’ in research. Papers which scored well on these ‘generic’ quality indicators, and/or those that applied to areas of the model for which no more rigorous literature was identified, proceeded to a detailed evaluation of their findings based on study design. Police Brutality Uk! Poor quality papers had their limitations made explicit. Stage 4—method specific quality evaluation. Eighty-two studies were considered of adequate quality and relevance to the ‘access’ model including 15 qualitative, 62 quantitative and german and traditions five mixed-method studies. These proceeded to importance in business the final stage of evaluation of findings according to specific quality criteria. The data extraction and quality evaluation process included evaluation of the german and traditions literature using both literal and idiomatic techniques. 24 That is, the main details of how does jocasta die, each paper were transcribed literally (word for word) from the original text onto the quality evaluation pro-forma to accurately represent original findings. These were then evaluated in light of the criteria for the study type, as described above and, using idiomatic translation, comments were added on the quality, paradigms and approaches used, comparisons with previously reviewed literature and relationship to and traditions the model. Idiomatic translation identifies the underlying ‘meaning’ of the how does jocasta text, from its literal meaning, and has been highlighted as a precursor for synthesizing and german customs and traditions interpreting qualitative literature into a new construction or dialectic. 24 Diffuse literature review needs to recognize competing ‘world views’ and evaluate their relevance to the model employed. This translation means that reviewer perspectives, along with the substance of the literature, are reflected in synthesis of findings. Biomedical Models Of Health! This is a feature of literature review in customs and traditions more diffuse, ‘soft’ topics. Final ratings are shown in Fig. 2. Many papers evaluated failed to attain higher ratings as a result of lack of detail on how does jocasta the methodology, which made judgements on confounding, representativeness and transferability difficult. The nature of the topic meant that statistical analysis in the vast majority of quantitative papers was merely descriptive. Statistical considerations were therefore not critical to evaluation and many of the papers rated ‘less rigorous’ were considered adequate in terms of the german customs and traditions soundness of the data on which conclusions were based. Use of a Microsoft ‘Access’ database to manage information generated by data extraction and evaluation proved invaluable. How Does Die! It allowed the customs and traditions reviewer to extract data easily according to areas of the model underpinning the literature review. Equally important, in biomedical of health the light of evidence from the consultation exercise, it enabled us to german and traditions describe the distribution of the evidence across the of ethics in business model and hence identify ‘gaps’. Time and effort in converting the hard copy pro-forma to a database format were more than repaid at this stage. The type of literature evaluation described here is customs increasingly being commissioned to inform decision making on future priorities for importance of ethics in business, research, and to assess the impact of policy 9,25 from a stakeholder perspective. This has implications for the research infrastructure, of which librarians are part, in terms of capacity and skills to respond. Librarians are familiar with literature across a range of methods and disciplines and are therefore well placed to contribute to the evaluation of literature, particularly in identifying and categorizing the different narratives that converge in a diffuse topic. Identifying the underlying assumptions, or ontology, on which research is german customs based draws on traditional librarian skills of classifying the size chart literature. The evaluation phase of the literature review required the authors to focus on the content of the evidence gathered during which the librarian identified and categorized the variety of ‘world views’ 24 reflected. This facilitated the mapping of the literature. Quantitative papers using parametric statistics, although a small proportion of the studies using this methodology, were evaluated by the first author who has the necessary skills in this area. Customs! Critical appraisal of quantitative research and statistical methods has been identified as a skills gap among health librarians. To contribute effectively to how does jocasta all stages of the systematic review process, and provide an evidence-based service, it is important that skills are developed in this area. Customs And Traditions! 26. The quality appraisal tool was devised by the first author, drawing on her research experience. However, ensuring the tool was ‘fit for purpose’ required further development work during the pilot phase as the tool was applied to a variety of chart, literature. Librarians have done a good deal of work in assisting research users to identify and apply the plethora of quality evaluation tools and checklists available, through the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme 27 (CASP). They can extend this role by contributing to the development and piloting of quality appraisal tools, by using their extensive knowledge of the literature, and by further testing and applying these tools in german customs and traditions subsequent literature reviews. To this end, participating in biomedical and socio-medical of health all stages of a literature review, from the funding proposal to the dissemination of findings, can provide a vehicle for german, developing the role of the librarian in the health services context. At the how does jocasta die same time, their developing research skills will enable them to conduct research both on the services they provide and, as a member of a team, on customs research projects. Implications for systematic review methods. Literature reviews of diffuse concepts require additional stages of size chart, manual sieving, or ‘funnelling’ data, as final criteria for inclusion only emerge after examining the full range of available literature. 22 A high level of wastage would then seem to and traditions be an unavoidable feature of this type of review as many references initially obtained as of potential, or undeterminable, relevance are later discarded on in business examining the full text. The evaluation of the literature was an intense, iterative process, reflecting the developing literature around quality assessment in qualitative research, which suggests that further criteria refinement may be necessary during evaluation as qualitative research incorporates a wide range of techniques and approaches. 28. The development and and traditions piloting of the importance of ethics quality appraisal tool was of necessity a rapid process. German And Traditions! Time limitations also meant the literature had to be divided between the two authors. However, ongoing consultation was conducted as necessary. Given more time, each paper could have been evaluated by cyber war examples, both assessors. This would have enhanced the scientific validity of the review findings by enabling calculation of inter-rater reliability, and further assessment of the german and traditions evaluation tool. A common practice in literature review, particularly within short timescales, is for reviewers to take the lead on specific pieces of the overall work, which are later assembled and honed into a complete review. The advantage of researchers reviewing the biomedical and socio-medical models of health full range, as opposed to carving out discreet areas of the literature, is the depth of knowledge acquired around the topic. As quality appraisal progressed, the reviewers’ understanding of the literature and german customs and traditions its relationship to police uk the model of ‘access to health care’ deepened and they were therefore able to feed this more rounded or ‘holistic’ view into the synthesis. The authors plan to further test and develop the customs and traditions tool and would encourage other researchers and practitioners involved in reviewing different types of evidence to provide feedback on its use. In this regard, the section of the evaluation tool entitled ‘Area(s) of the model’ was specific to the research project described here. However, this section is interchangeable and could be replaced with criteria from models or frameworks underpinning any review through which the evidence is to be organized. Finally, this literature review adopted a relativist approach congruent with the multi-faceted nature of health care service delivery, recognizing that human activity reveals a wide range of subjective perspectives and primark size narratives. Unlike traditional systematic reviewing, therefore, all methodological perspectives and types of publication were considered valid. German! Consequently, the findings of this review challenge conventional ways of delivering health services by identifying both the ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ descriptions 29 of contextual factors that may result in failure to gain access to services by people with learning disabilities. The authors believe that the value of this approach to literature review is brutality demonstrated by the range and depth of publications identified and gaps in knowledge highlighted. They suggest that it is possible to customs conduct such reviews systematically, although they do not constitute a ‘systematic review’ in the traditional sense. We thank our colleagues Angela Swallow and Caroline Glendinning, all those who participated in the consultation exercise and the NCC SDO for funding this project. A full report of the project is available from the NCC SDO website at: http://www.sdo.lshtm.ac.uk/access.htm. The full quality evaluation tool is available on the NPCRDC, University of cyber, Manchester website at: http://www.npcrdc.ac.uk/publications/Quality%20Evaluation%20Tool.doc. • Participating in the evaluation phase of a literature review is a valuable role that provides skill development opportunities for health librarians. • Traditional librarian skills of organizing and customs and traditions classifying information can assist in identifying and mapping underlying themes and importance of ethics in business components in literature reviews of diffuse topics. • Librarians need training in both qualitative and quantitative methods, and evaluation of research quality to participate in research and become evidence-based practitioners. Issue online: 9 December 2004 Version of german, record online: 9 December 2004. 1 Moher, D. , Pham, B. , Lawson, M. Of Action Against Law Enforcement Personnel,! L. & Klassen, T. P. The inclusion of reports of and traditions, randomised trials published in languages other than English in importance in business systematic reviews . Health Technology Assessment 2003 , 7 , 1 – 90 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS 2 Sutton, A. , Abrams, K. , Jones, D. , Sheldon, T. & Song, F. Systematic reviews of trials and other studies . Health Technology Assessment 1998 , 2 , 1 – 276 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 3 Song, F. Customs! , Eastwoood, A. , Gilbody, S. , Duley, L. & Sutton, A. Publication and related biases . Health Technology Assessment 2000 , 4 , 1 – 115 . PubMed 4 Egger, M. , Juni, P. Primark Chart! , Bartlett, C. , Holenstein, F. & Sterne, J. How important are comprehensive literature searches and the assessment of german and traditions, trial quality in systematic reviews? Empirical study . Health Technology Assessment 2003 , 7 , 1 – 76 . PubMed | CAS 5 The Cochrane Methodology Register . Jocasta Die! In: The Cochrane Library . Issue 2. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2004 . 6 McNally, R. & Alborz, A. Customs! Developing methods for systematic reviewing in health services delivery and organisation: an example from a review of access to health care for people with learning disabilities. I. How Does! Identifying the literature . Health Information and Libraries Journal 2004 , 21 , 182 – 93 . Customs And Traditions! Wiley Online Library | PubMed 7 Boaz, A. Police Brutality! , Ashby, D. & Young, K. Customs And Traditions! Systematic reviews: what have they got to biomedical and socio-medical models of health offer evidence based policy and practice? ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and german customs Practice: Working Paper 2. London: ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice, Queen Mary, University of London, 2002 . 8 Fulop, N. , Allen, P. , Clarke, A. Importance In Business! & Black, N. German Customs And Traditions! (eds). Studying the Organisation and Delivery of Health Services Research Methods. London: Routledge, 2001 . 9 Grayson, L. & Gomersall, A. A difficult business: finding the evidence for importance in business, social science reviews . ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice: Working Paper 19. London: ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice, Queen Mary, University of London, 2003 . 10 Beverley, C. , Booth, A. & Bath, P. The role of the information specialist in the systematic review process: a health information case study . German And Traditions! Health Information and and socio-medical of health Libraries Journal 2003 , 20 , 64 – 75 . Wiley Online Library 11 Thomas, J. German Customs! , Harden, A. , Oakley, A. , Oliver, S. , Sutcliffe, K. , Rees, R. , Brunton, G. & Kavanagh, J. Integrating qualitative research with trials in systematic reviews . British Medical Journal 2004 , 328 , 1010 – 2 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 52 12 Pawson, R. , Boaz, A. , Grayson, L. , Long, A. & Barnes, C. Types and police quality of knowledge in german and traditions social care . Knowledge Review 3. Models Of Health! London: Social Care Institute for Excellence, 2004 : 1–83. 13 Alborz, A. , McNally, R. , Swallow, A. & Glendinning, C. From the cradle to the grave . A Literature Review of german, Access to Health Care for People with Learning Disabilties. Manchester: National Primary Care Research and Deevlopment Centre, University of Manchester, 2003. Available from: http://www.sdo.lshtm.ac.uk/access.htm. 14 Sackett, D. L. Brutality Uk! , Richardson, W. S. , Rosenberg, W. & Hayes, R. B. Evidence Based Medicine: How to customs Practice and Liability against Personnel, Supervisors, and Agencies Teach EBM. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997 . 15 Edwards, A. , Russell, I. & Stott, N. Signal versus noise in the evidence base for medicine: an customs, alternative to hierarchies of evidence? Family Practice 1998 , 15 , 322 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 16 University of Salford, Health Care Practice Research and Development Unit. Evaluation Tool for Quantitative Research Studies 2001. Available from: http://www.fhsc.salford.ac.uk/hcprdu/tools/quantitative.htm (accessed 11 August 2004). Of Ethics! 17 University of Salford, Health Care Practice Research and Development Unit. Evaluation Tool for Qualitative Research Studies 2001. Available from: http://www.fhsc.salford.ac.uk/hcprdu/tools/qualitative.htm (accessed 11 August 2004). German! 18 Popay, J. , Rogers, A. & Williams, G. Rationale and biomedical and socio-medical standards for customs and traditions, the systematic review of qualitative literature in and socio-medical models of health health services research . Qualitative Health Research 2000 , 8 , 341 – 51 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 176 19 Mays, N. & Pope, C. Assessing quality in qualitative research . British Medical Journal 2000 , 320 , 52 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 367 20 Reeves, D. , Alborz, A. , Hickson, F. Customs! & Bamford, J. Community provision of hearing aids and related audiology services . Health Technology Assessment 2000 , 4 , 1 – 198 . PubMed | CAS | Web of and socio-medical models of health, Science® Times Cited: 3 21 Gomm, R. , Needham, G. & Bullman, A. (eds). Evaluating Research in Health Social Care . And Traditions! London: Open University Press, 2000 . 22 Hawker, S. , Payne, S. , Kerr, C. , Hardey, M. & Powell, J. Appraising the evidence: reviewing disparate data systematically . Qualitative Health Research 2002 , 12 , 1284 – 99 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 40 23 Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences , 2nd edn . Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988 . 24 Noblit, G. & Hare, D. Meta-Ethnography: Synthesizing Qualitative Studies . Newbury Park, California: Sage, 1988 . CrossRef | Web of Science® 25 Milner, S. , Bailey, C. & Deans, J. ‘Fit for purpose’ health impact assessment: a realistic way forward . Public Health 2003 , 117 , 295 – 300 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 26 Booth, A. & Brice, A. Clear-cut? Facilitating health librarians to use information research in practice . Health Information and Libraries Journal 2004 , 20 ( Suppl. 1 ), 45 – 52 . 27 NHS Public Health Resource Unit. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme , 2003 . Available from: http://www.phru.nhs.uk/casp/casp.htm (accessed 23 September 2003). Primark! 28 Dixon-Wood, M. , Shaw, R. L. , Agarwal, S. & Smith, J. A. The problem of customs and traditions, appraising qualitative research . Quality and Safety in Health Care 2004 , 13 , 223 – 5 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 36 29 Geertz, C. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays . Of Action Personnel, And Agencies! New York: Basic Books, 1973 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 7. Articles related to customs the one you are viewing. 1 Pär Mårtensson , Uno Fors , Sven-Bertil Wallin , Udo Zander , Gunnar H Nilsson , Evaluating research: A multidisciplinary approach to assessing research practice and quality, Research Policy , 2016 , 45 , 3, 593 CrossRef 2 Nicola Wright , Maria Moldavsky , Justine Schneider , Ipsita Chakrabarti , Janine Coates , David Daley , Puja Kochhar , Jon Mills , Walid Sorour , Kapil Sayal , Practitioner Review: Pathways to care for ADHD - a systematic review of barriers and facilitators, Journal of Liability Causes of Action Law Enforcement Personnel,, Child Psychology and and traditions Psychiatry , 2015 , 56 , 6, 598 Wiley Online Library 3 Blaine Reeder , Ellen Meyer , Amanda Lazar , Shomir Chaudhuri , Hilaire J. Liability Causes Against Supervisors, And Agencies! Thompson , George Demiris , Framing the evidence for german and traditions, health smart homes and home-based consumer health technologies as a public health intervention for independent aging: A systematic review, International Journal of Medical Informatics , 2013 , 82 , 7, 565 CrossRef 4 Andrew Booth , Using Evidence in Practice: Retrospective, Health Information & Libraries Journal , 2008 , 25 , 49 Wiley Online Library. Copyright © 1999 - 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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