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Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Each year a number of cases of phonemes psychology, plagiarism are brought to theodore the attention of the Dean of Arts and the President’s Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for phonemes psychology, the assignment in question, be awarded a mark of zero in the course, or face suspension from the University. Most simply, plagiarism is intellectual theft. Any use of another author’s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to be described more fully. This is the most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by someone else. Usually the multidomestic original source is a published journal article or book chapter. The use of unpublished work, including the work of another student , is just as serious. In such cases, plagiarism cannot be "avoided" by paraphrasing the original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the property of phonemes psychology, another author and should not be used. See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and use them in his or her own work. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable. Even with some attribution, the bulk of the work has been done by Clurman's Theatre of Life another. See Example #1. In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs from a variety of phonemes psychology, sources and "stitch" them together into an essay. These situations often seem difficult to assess. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of sources and arguments. But the line between plagiarism and original work is not difficult to draw. See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in many student essays, and is usually the result of sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Examples include: inadvertent use of another’s language, usually when the student fails to distinguish between direct quotes and general observations when taking notes. In such cases, the presence of a footnote does not excuse the use of another’s language without quotation marks. use of footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your research. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references. Although it may not be the multidomestic student’s intention to deceive, it is often difficult for instructors to distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism. See Example #3. This is phonemes not intended to Theatre of Life discourage students from pursuing specific interests. Phonemes! If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for new research, you should receive the instructor’s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. If you want to use substantially similar essays to satisfy the requirements of brothers, two related courses, you should get approval from all the instructors concerned. It is not hard to draw the phonemes psychology distinction between original and venus and mars mythology thoroughly plagiarized work. But the "grey areas" between these extremes are more vexing. Students should avoid any hint of phonemes psychology, dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and multidomestic paying attention to a few basic rules of writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from other sources, and psychology the student’s own ideas. Whether you keep notes on index cards, in a loose-leaf binder, or on old envelopes in a desk drawer, it is important to record and organize them in such a way that vital information is not lost. Keep careful and complete track of sources. Accurately copy the author, title, and other information about the source publication, including the system number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and the ideas of others. This is a simple question of phonemes psychology, intellectual honesty. If you use another’s conclusions, acknowledge them. If you come to the same conclusions as another on your own, you should still acknowledge the agreement. Distinguish carefully between your own words and roosevelt those of others. If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for directly quoted material. As you begin to tie your ideas together in written form, consider the phonemes following: Begin by organizing your essay in Clurman's Theatre an original manner . Avoid mimicking the pattern or order of argument used by others. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of research; it is not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the work of others. As you weave the ideas and language of others into psychology your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. See Example #4. Read the first draft carefully . Is the distinction between your work and multidomestic marketing strategy the work of others clear and unambiguous? You might even take an psychology early draft and brothers highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources. Is there enough of your own work left in the essay? Many cases of plagiarism occur in the documentation rather than the body of the essay. Psychology! You should have a clear idea of the variety of purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and many different ways you can acknowledge the work of Harold Clurman's Theatre of Life, others. For specific cases See Example #5 . Psychology! Also note the following: Always record your source of the information; never use or rely on Harold Essay another author’s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to find or check the material being cited. Provide exact page numbers for direct quotes, and a range of page numbers for more general points. If you included more than one source or reference in a footnote, the relevance or order of the various sources should be clear to phonemes psychology the reader. Once your essay is complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and ask yourself the following: Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the general language or choice of roosevelt terms, words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is "no," the work must be credited to the original author. And if the answer to the second question is "no," the passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student’s own words and phonemes psychology credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism. Despite minor changes to the text, the menaechmus passages are substantially unchanged. In the first case, the plagiarist also lifts the footnote from the original. Note that the use of even very brief passages (such as the "wings of aspiration") constitutes plagiarism. Use of such passages throughout an essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . [This example is drawn from a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in phonemes the graduate school essays of Martin Luther King Jr. Students interested in a well-illustrated discussion of student plagiarism, might want to consult this: "Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table," Journal of Theatre Essay, American History (June 1991, pp. 11-123. The example used below is on p. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of phonemes psychology, student plagiarism. Even the footnote to theodore the original does not excuse the substantial use of the original’s language. It is Eros, not Agape, that loves in proportion to the value of phonemes, its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Essay! Agape, as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is "spontaneous and ‘uncaused’," "indifferent to human merit," and "creates" value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from God into psychology this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of functions skeletal, their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. because the God of grace imparts worth to phonemes psychology them by the act of loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp. 52-56] As Nygren set out to contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in proportion to the value of the object. By the pursuit of value in its objects. Platonic love is let up and multidomestic strategy away from the phonemes psychology world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape as described in multidomestic strategy the Gospels and Epistles, is "spontaneous and uncaused," "indifferent to human merit," and creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of phonemes, pure generosity. It flows down from God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of multidomestic marketing, their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies, because the God of Grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and Eros , pp. 52-56] The strike officially began on May 29, and on June 1 the phonemes manufacturers met publicly to plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on two fronts. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry. Roosevelt! Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union’s efforts to psychology weather the strike. They tried to and mars create a negative image of the union through the press, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from patronizing the unions’ cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers’ tactics were much less useful. The strike began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. They had two strategies. Phonemes Psychology! They pressured the proprietors into skeletal system holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and psychology cuffs to any laundry, and they attempted to Clurman's of Life Essay undermine directly the union’s efforts to weather the strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled. Psychology! They prevented a few collar manufacturers in marketing other cities from using the unions’ cooperative laundry even though it could provide the psychology same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the collar ironers’ tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Carole Turbin, "And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in Troy," pp. 225-26 in Women of brothers, America . Phonemes Psychology! Edited by Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979). Here two sources are combined to create a new passage. As it stands, the passage is clearly plagiarized. Terms! If a footnote were added acknowledging the sources, the substantial use of the language of the psychology original passage would still open the Harold Clurman's Theatre of Life student to charges of plagiarism. Phonemes! An example of an honest and acceptable use of the information derived from these sources is provided at the bottom of the page. Note that the "acceptable version" uses the facts of the ajax greek hero original sources, but organizes and expresses them in the student’s own language. "Despite the phonemes strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to of the skeletal system install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it "the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts." (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) "By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the phonemes psychology Nicaraguan-Honduran border." (Peter Kornbluh, "Nicaragua," in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. One expert called Honduras "the USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts." In the early 1980s, the Reagan Administration made increasing use of Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of mythology, military and training facilities--some American, some contra, and some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras. The country, as one observer noted, was little more than "a [stationary] aircraft carrier," which he described as "the USS Honduras ." 2. 2. Phonemes Psychology! See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310 (quote p. Theodore Terms! 309); and Peter Kornbluh, "Nicaragua," in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139. In this example, the student may have made a sincere effort to write an original passage, but sloppy research and documentation raise the possibility of psychology, plagiarism. Note the characteristic errors: confusion of of the skeletal system, original and student’s language, quotation marks in psychology the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. "Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it "the USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts." (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) "By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border." (Peter Kornbluh, "Nicaragua," in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, the multidomestic Reagan Administration "continued to phonemes psychology install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts." 3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up "contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border." 4. 3. Theatre Of Life! Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. 4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983). Students anxious about committing plagiarism often ask: "How much do I have to change a sentence to be sure I’m not plagiarizing?" A simple answer to this is: If you have to phonemes psychology ask, you’re probably plagiarizing. This is important. And Mars Mythology! Avoiding plagiarism is not an exercise in inventive paraphrasing. There is no magic number of words that you can add or change to make a passage your own. Original work demands original thought and organization of thoughts. In the psychology following example, although almost all the words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. An acceptable use of this material is also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the brothers raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to psychology raise funds by brothers menaechmus performing scenes from Shakespeare’s Romeo and phonemes psychology Juliet and Richard III . Marketing Strategy! That the psychology presentation of Shakespeare in small Mississippi towns could be conceived of as potentially lucrative tells us much about the position of Shakespeare in the nineteenth century. (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10) Soon after the two thieves, who pretend they are a king and menaechmus a duke, capture Huck and psychology Jim’s raft, they try to make money by ajax greek hero putting on two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Because the phonemes production of Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the status of Shakespeare before the twentieth century. As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the identification of "highbrow" theatre is terms a relatively recent phenomenon. 5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the passage cited above, but expands upon it and places it in the context of the student’s work. Varieties of Footnotes. The use of sources can be clarified in a number of ways through careful footnoting. Consider the different forms of documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in phonemes Latin America escalated rapidly. 6 "The influx of American funds," notes Peter Kornbluh, determined "the frequency and destructiveness of contra attachs." 7 In the early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra , and some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras. "[T]he USS Honduras ," as one observer noted, was little more than "a [stationary] aircraft carrier." 8 These strategies seemed to represent both a conscious acceleration of American involvement in brothers the region, and the inertia of past involvements and failures. Phonemes! 9. 6. The following paragraph is drawn from Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. Multidomestic Marketing Strategy! 307-310; and Peter Kornbluh, "Nicaragua," in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149. Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Phonemes! Peter Kornbluh, "Nicaragua," in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309. Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, "Nicaragua," in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the renewal of counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from that of your sources. Dr. Ajax Greek Hero! Colin H. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC) Professor Peter Simmons. (President’s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)

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Keep track of your document references/citations and phonemes, format your reference lists easily with citation management software. Chicago style outlines two distinct citation styles (14.2): Notes/bibliography style, also known as "Humanities style." Sources are cited through footnotes (or endnotes ) and ajax greek hero, a bibliography Author/date style, also known as "Scientific/Social Sciences style." Sources are cited through parenthetical author/date references in the text and a reference list. It is recommended practice , but not absolutely necessary, to cite your sources in both the phonemes psychology, notes and ajax greek hero, the bibliography. The practice of including both notes and phonemes, a bibliography is still common practice amongst humanities scholars, so make sure to consult your instructor. If you choose not to include a bibliography in your paper or choose to create only strategy a partial list of references, you must provide full details of the sources you cited in your notes. (The first time you mention a work in the notes, you must provide full publication details. All subsequent notes of the same work can be written in short form.) If, on the other hand, your bibliography includes all sources cited in the notes, you need not provide full publication details in the notes since a reader can consult the bibliography (14.14). Your paper must be double-spaced. Psychology? It is conventional to single-space footnotes and menaechmus, bibliographies , leaving a blank line between entries. Every page of the paper must be assigned a page number, including blank pages, appendices, and bibliography. Psychology? Arabic numerals are centered or flush right at theodore roosevelt terms the top of the page. You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words (13.1 - 13.6). You need to cite: to identify other people's ideas and information used within your essay to inform the reader of your paper where they should look if they want to psychology find the same sources. A citation must appear in two places in your essay (14.14): in the menaechmus, notes (footnotes or endnotes) in the bibliography (at the psychology, end of your paper) To introduce other people's ideas in text, use the following examples: Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes; As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved , . etc. Use Webster's Third New International Dictionary [print] and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary [print] for standard spelling references for strategy all Chicago citations (7.1). You are responsible for the accuracy of all information in your notes and bibliography (13.6). References in text: footnotes and endnotes (14.14 - 14.55) In Chicago notes/bibliography style, footnotes or endnotes are used to cite quotes, paraphrases, and other in-text references (13.3, 14.14-14.40). Footnotes are numbered citations listed at the bottom of each page in phonemes the research paper Endnotes are numbered citations listed on of the system a single page at phonemes the end of the research paper. To cite a source, a small superscript (raised) number is placed after each in-text reference. Throughout the paper, these in-text references are numbered in sequential order (14.20). For example: Mooney found that "domestic violence has, since the 1970s, been increasingly recognized as a social problem." 1. Each numbered reference then corresponds to of the a numbered citation in the footnote or endnote that provides author, date, and publication information for each source (14.14). Psychology? The numbers in the notes are full size, not raised, and followed by brothers menaechmus a period. Citations in notes are single-spaced (unless otherwise instructed), but there is a double space between entries. The first line is indented . References in phonemes text: shortened citations (14.14; 14.24 - 14.31) The first in-text reference to a given source must be cited in full with the name of the author/s, title of the work, place of publication, name of the publisher, and page number/s of the cited reference (14.14, 14.18). Venus And Mars Mythology? For example: 1. Jayne Mooney, Gender, Violence and the Social Order (London: Macmillan, 2000). 2. Subsequent notes for sources that have already been cited may be shortened to the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the appropriate page reference (14.14, 14.18, 14.24 - 14.31). For example: 2. Psychology? Mooney, Gender , 131-32. Immediately following notes that refer to the same source may be shortened even further to " ibid. " (short for 'ibidem' - the Latin word for ajax greek hero "in the psychology, same place") and the appropriate page reference (14.29). Menaechmus? For example: Bibliography (14.14 - 14.18; 14.56 - 14.67) The list of sources at the end of the paper or at the end of the chapter is called the bibliography. This list must include all references cited in phonemes the text of your paper (14.56 - 14.57). In the bibliography, entries are listed in alphabetical order according to the authors' last names. If no author or editor is provided, the brothers menaechmus, work's title may be used instead (14.57). Entries are double-spaced , but single-spacing is used within each entry . The second and subsequent lines are indented . When the phonemes psychology, bibliography includes multiple entries by the same author listed together, a 3-em dash may be used to replace the author's name after the first entry (14.63 - 14.57). For example: Darnton, Robert. " An Early Information Society: New and the Media in Eighteenth-Century Paris." American Historical Review 105, no. 1(2000): 1-35. ---. The Devil in marketing strategy the Holy Water or the Art of Slander from Louis XIV to Napoleon. Philadelphia: University of phonemes psychology Pennsylvania Press, 2010. For more information about venus, how to format your bibliography, see sections 14.56 - 14.67. When books have editors, translators, or compilers, the following abbreviations are used (10.43, 14.72 - 14.92): For editions of books other than the first, the edition number (or description) and the abbreviation "ed." are placed after the book's title in all notes and phonemes psychology, bibliographic citations (14.118 - 14.120). Of The? For example:

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Abstract . Phonemes Psychology? This is a brief (usually one paragraph) summary of the whole paper, including the problem, the method for solving it (when not obvious), the results, and the conclusions suggested or drawn. Do not write the Clurman's of Life Essay, abstract as a hasty afterthought. Look at it as a real exercise in cramming the most information in one paragraph. The reader should not have to read any of the rest of the paper in order to psychology understand the abstract fully. Its purpose is to allow the reader to decide whether to read the paper or not. A reader who does not want to read the paper should be able to skeletal read the abstract instead. When you write an abstract, remember Strunk & White's admonition, ``Omit needless words.'' Introduction . Tell the psychology, reader what the problem is, what question you will try to ajax greek hero answer, and why it is phonemes, important. Ajax Greek Hero? It might be important for practical reasons or for phonemes psychology, theoretical (or methodological) reasons having to Clurman's Theatre of Life do with the development of a scholarly discipline. Don't neglect either type of reason. If the problem is a very basic one, you may state the problem first and then review what has already been found out about it. If the problem is one that grows out of past literature, review the history of how it arose. Phonemes? But do not forget to mention the basic issues behind the research tradition in question, the practical or theoretical concerns that inspired it. (Sometimes there don't seem to be any. In this case, you have probably chosen the wrong topic.) Your literature review should be appropriate to the kind of paper you are writing. If it is a thesis, you should strive for completeness, both in reviewing all the relevant literature and in making the main arguments clear to multidomestic marketing strategy a reader who is unfamiliar with that literature. For a course paper or journal article, it is sufficient to phonemes review the marketing, main papers that are directly relevant. Again, you should assume that your reader has not read them, but you need not go into detail. You should review only those points that are relevant to the arguments you will make. Do not say that ``X found Y'' or ``demonstrated'' if X's conclusions don't follow from X's results. You can use words like ``X claimed to show that Y'' or ``suggested that'' when you are not sure. If you see a flaw, you can add, ``However . ''. Try to phonemes avoid expressions like ``Unfortunately, Smith and Jones neglected to examine [precisely what you are examining].'' It might have been unfortunate for them or for the field, but it is theodore terms, fortunate for you, and everyone knows it. The introduction should lead up to, and conclude with, a statement of how you intend to approach your question and why your approach is an improvement on past efforts (or why it is worth undertaking even if it isn't). Phonemes Psychology? This is essentially what is Harold Clurman's Theatre Essay, new about your approach, your particular contribution. It need not be anything great. Phonemes Psychology? Something like ``applying X's method to Theatre test Y's theory'' is good enough. Method . This section gives the details of how you went about your project. Phonemes Psychology? It is usually divided into multidomestic marketing, subsections such as subjects, materials, and procedure. These subheadings are standard ones, but they are not always appropriate, and other subheadings are acceptable. The point of subheadings is that the reader may want to skip this section entirely and return to it later in the paper. The subheadings should make it easy to find relevant details. Results . This is a summary of what you actually found. It is phonemes, not a dump of your unanalyzed data, nor merely a report of whether your statistical tests were significant, but somewhere in between. It should contain whatever summary statistics will help readers see for themselves what happened, such as means and standard deviations of various conditions, and raw correlations, when these are relevant. It should also contain the results of statistical tests. Make sure to brothers menaechmus do and phonemes report just those tests that are relevant to the question that inspired your project. If you must include your raw data (and sometimes there is good reason to do this), put them in an appendix. (Notice that the word ``data'' is a plural noun meaning, roughly, facts.) Graphs, charts, and menaechmus tables are often useful in psychology, this section (and elsewhere, but less often). They should be labeled consecutively either as Figures or Tables, depending on whether a typesetter could be expected to set them, (yes for roosevelt, tables, no for figures), e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, etc. Each one should have a caption explaining clearly what it is, if possible without relying on anything in the text. (Figure captions are on a separate sheet so that the typesetter can set them, but for course papers, this is not necessary.) The text should tell the reader when to psychology look at the figures and tables (``As shown in Figure 1 . ''), and it should point out the important points, but it should not simply repeat in writing what they say. Figures and tables are supposed to go at the end of the paper, but this is for the benefit of the typesetter. Most professors (except nitpickers) prefer the tables and figures close to where they are needed. Discussion . It is a good idea to ajax greek hero begin the phonemes, discussion with a summary of the results, for the benefit of the reader who wants to skip the results section (and to strategy remind the phonemes psychology, reader who didn't skip it but got interrupted by a phone call and forgot it). In the marketing strategy, rest of phonemes psychology, this section, you return to ajax greek hero your original question and tell the reader what your results have to say about it (``The results indicate that . '') and what they do not have to say (``However, the results are inconclusive concerning . Phonemes? '' or ``do not speak to the question of''). In each case, tell why. Try to think of ajax greek hero, objections that someone might make to the conclusions that you draw (whether the objections are correct or not) and either answer them or qualify your conclusions to take them into psychology, account (``Of course, these conclusions assume that the subjects were telling the truth, which might not be the menaechmus, case''). Phonemes Psychology? You may also say why you think the objections are weak even if they are possible (``On the other hand, there was no reason for the subjects to lie''). Your task here is not to do a sales pitch for some idea but rather to help the reader understand exactly what can and cannot be concluded. The discussion section may be combined with the functions of the system, results. The advantage of this is phonemes, that it puts the results in the context of the issues that generate them. The disadvantage is that the flow of the discussion gets interrupted with a lot of statistics, etc. The discussion section is also the place to say anything else you want to say that does not go anywhere else. You may reflect on the implications of your results, or your methods, or whatever, for brothers, other issues that were not the main point of the paper. Phonemes Psychology? You can talk about how your project should have been done, and why. Or you can make a more general argument, for venus and mars, which your results are only a part. Note that some of these things may be quite creative, but none of them amounts to simply reporting ``your own ideas'' without support. You should report your own ideas -- when you can support them with arguments and reply to potential arguments against them. If you can't do this, maybe your ideas need to be changed. You can also make suggestions that might be true, labeled as such, but then try to psychology state the alternative too. It is often a good idea to end the paper with a general statement of main message. More generally, one type of well-constructed paper will reveal its main ideas to a reader who actually reads only the roosevelt, first and last paragraph and phonemes psychology the first and last sentence of every intervening paragraph, and ajax greek hero this principle applies especially to the discussion section by itself. References . This is a list of the phonemes psychology, articles cited. Harold Clurman's Theatre Of Life Essay? Usually, articles are mentioned in the text by author and psychology date, e.g., Baron (1988), and the references at functions of the the end are listed alphabetically by author. Each discipline and each journal has its own conventions about references. These usually insure uniformity, but they don't even help the typesetter. The important thing is that you give the reader what she needs to find the articles you have cited. For journals, both the volume and phonemes psychology the year are usually needed as well as the page numbers, because mistakes are common. If you really want to do it ``right'' pick a journal and imitate the style. Footnotes . Sometimes you want to say something that isn't quite necessary. This is the ajax greek hero, time to psychology use a footnote. Menaechmus? If you can get away without using them, it saves the reader's eyes. But sometimes it's hard to resist making rather extensive, but rather tangential remarks. These go in footnotes, not the text. The really eager reader will read them. Others will not. You may assume your reader is intelligent, but he reads only your paper, not your mind. Phonemes Psychology? Therefore, when you use any terms that are not obvious, you must make sure to define them so as to remove any relevant ambiguity. A good way to do this is with both an abstract definition and an example: ``I use the word 'dyslexia' to refer to seriously impaired reading despite normal instruction, vision, hearing, and language ability. Harold Clurman's Of Life Essay? By this definition, a retardate could be called dyslexic if his reading is far behind his speech.'' There are practically no ``standard definitions'' in fields like psychology, so you must choose your terms and your definitions of them so as to capture what you want to say without flying the face of psychology, other people's definitions of the same terms. Because terms are so important in academic discourse, do not use more than one term for the same idea (no matter what you learned in 9th grade English). Style . Academic writing may seem pompous and functions convoluted to you. A lot of it is, but the best is phonemes, not. Do not use words just because they sound academic (especially when you aren't sure what they really mean). The major rule of syntax is this: write so that a reader could parse your sentences -- that is, figure out what modifies what, what is the object of multidomestic strategy, what, and so on -- without understanding what they mean. The syntax should help the phonemes, reader figure out the meaning; the reader should not need the meaning to decipher the syntax. For example, put ``only'' just before what it modifies (``Smith suggested that only men are susceptible to this effect,'' not ``Smith only suggested that men . Functions Of The Skeletal? '') to phonemes avoid ambiguity of syntax, even if you think the meaning is clear from context. Of course, pay attention to correct usage as well. Make sure you know the rules for using commas; many people do not. Roosevelt Terms? (Strunk and phonemes psychology White, "The elements of style," provide an excellent review of the roles, as well as many fine suggestions for elegance as well as clarity.) When you read, pay attention to the different ways that people indicate the theodore terms, relationship of their work to the truth. Phonemes? Words such as indicate, demonstrate, prove (not used outside of mathematics), test (a hypothesis), hypothesize, suggest, assert, question, claim, conclude, argue, discover, define, and assume do have very specific meanings in academic discourse. Appendix on Good Scientific Writing. I've been correcting graduate student papers and editing journal articles for marketing, more than twenty-five years. Phonemes? I see the same errors of writing over and over. Here are some to avoid: Vacant Lead Sentences. The first sentences of brothers, each section, and psychology the first sentences of each paragraph as well, are the most important sentences. Strategy? They should state, in plain English, your main points. Psychology? Then the details can follow. Right: Results. Cognitive therapy prevented relapse better than drug therapy. Drug therapy did better than no therapy at all. Analysis of covariance. Results. We performed four analyses of covariance on our data, first transforming them to z scores. Harold Theatre Of Life? We then did paired comparisons using a Bonferroni correction. Qualifiers and Caveats. Don't squander the opportunity to write forcefully by beginning with secondary points and caveats. They belong in the body of the paragraph or section, but not as openers. Distinguish between strong and weak statements. Good scientific writing uses qualifiers and caveats sparingly. Qualifiers apply to marginal results, arguable statements, speculations, and potential artifacts. They do not apply to strong findings, well-confirmed statements, or bedrock theory. "Seem", "appear", "indicate", "may", "suggest" and the like are meaningful verbs. They are not to be used reflexively. Right: Because volume was barely significant, water-deprivation may lower hunger. Electric shock, however, increased hunger two-fold. Our findings suggest that electric shock may increase hunger. Phonemes? It also appears that water-deprivation seems to lower hunger. Big words and long sentences. Most readers are busy. Many readers are lazy. Many readers just scan. Help these readers by using short sentences and plain words. Whenever a big word tempts you, look hard for terms, a plain word. Whenever a long sentence tempts you, find a way to break it up. The big word and the long sentence must increase accuracy a lot to make up for impeding reading. Wrong: Thus, by assigning this group to the wait-list condition, treatment effects would not be artificially inflated by including the higher income group with a better prognosis in psychology, the initial treatment phase. Richer people have less depression. So we biassed against our hypothesis by Essay putting more of them in the wait-list control. Overwriting. Omit words and ideas that the reader already knows. Overwriting slows the reader down and does not increase accuracy at all. Wrong: The wait list control group, when compared to the attention control group, the drug treatment group and the psychotherapy treament group did worse than the attention control group, and phonemes psychology much worse than the experimental drug treatment group and the psychotherapy treatment group. Psychotherapy and drugs did better than attention alone and much better than no treatment. The Royal "We" and the Passive Voice. Poor writers turn to the awkward passive voice to ajax greek hero avoid saying "I did such and such". The first person, used sparingly, is phonemes psychology, fine. Write forcefully and use the functions, active voice whenever you can. Right: I propose that animals can learn about phonemes psychology noncontingency and, when they do, they become helpless. It is suggested that animals can learn about functions system noncontingency. When noncontingency is learned by phonemes an animal, helplessness results. Citations in the middle. Don't break up sentences with citations. This small increase in accuracy slows the reader to a crawl. If you can manage it, group all your citations at the end of the paragraph. Direction of statistical effects. Always state the direction along with its significance. Wrong: The interaction between drug and weight was highly significant (F (2,31)=14.56, p.