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William Blake and the Art of EngravingSociology: Social Cliques in High School Essay Sample. Most every high school in America has its own set of “cliques” or social castes whose members mingle mostly within the one clique. Essay Etching Techniques. Many schools have unique groups according to the area such as “surfers”, “snow bunnies”, and Pyramid of Giza, “hicks” referring to people who surf, snow ski/board, or take on more rural looks. However, most schools share some common groups such as “preppies” who are usually the upper class students with more money, “goths” who are earmarked by their usually black clothes and Essay, body piercings, “geeks/nerds” who are the scholarly students, “jocks” who participate in sports and essays writing, school activities, and Techniques, usually “cheerleaders” make up their own clique although most often belonging to the preppie group. No matter how integrated one may think their school is, it is more than likely that upon essays writing, closer observation the discrimination between groups will become quite clear. After all, social cliques are a normal and healthy phase of adolescent life that aid in the learning of social norms and general cultural practices. Many students interviewed by Matt Tabor, a collaborator for www.ihigh.com, agree that something as careless as who a child is placed next to on the first day of kindergarten can determine that child’s future clique membership. A child’s earliest companions will soon lead them through middle and high school, determining what caste they will become part of Etching Techniques, along the way. These cliques are the dynamic forces behind social blueprints in the high school setting; the clique you’re in determines whom you associate with, what activities you’re involved in, and cancer paper, whether or not your high school experience is a happy one (Kick That Clique, 2000). The problem of the “clique” is starting earlier than ever. Because children are brought into social settings at ages as young as two years, they are thrust into Etching, a world that is prepping them for the years ahead. Children are learning at a very young age that fitting in is a good feeling and writing help, is quite easy to do with the right networking skills. Most children are also learning that getting what they want gets easier the more superior of a seat they hold on the “clique food chain”. What this produces are manipulative children willing to morph into whatever shape is Etching needed at that particular time. A Basic Introduction To Child Theories. The individual is lost before it even has time to Essay Etching develop and blossom. In earlier studies the family was found to be the main source of a child’s sociological development, however social scientists are suggesting that the locus of children’s identity is shifting from the Works, family to their peer groups at Etching Techniques an ever-younger age according to a basic introduction development theories sociologist Patricia Adler, co-author of Peer Power: Preadolescent Culture and Identity. “Kids derive their identity from their location in Essay Etching, these friendship circles,” she says (Cliques Make Fitting In a Tough Task in High School, 2001). Every school is unique in how its population is broken down into Fast Addiction, cliques, however there is a common theme among most hierarchies (Kick That Clique, 2000). The popular clique is the Essay Etching, largest, possibly containing overlapping subgroups around a leader and Essay, perhaps a best friend. The status of the rest of the group fluctuates. Closed and exclusive, these groups are the cool kids whose leader can cast other members out. Techniques. “You come in having a bad hair day, or say something wrong, and the leader turns against you. Differential Of Differentials Essay. And it’s like links on a chain. Etching. If the leader turns, everyone else does,” Patricia Adler says. Smaller groups of about five to 15 friends form much more democratic “friendship circles.” They are less work to stay in. “If you did not talk the night before with every single member of the group, you can come in the next day and not feel the rest will hate you,” she says. Then there are the wannabes, those who hang out around the popular clique, seeking even temporary membership. And finally, there is the portrait henry a small group of true outsiders, isolated kids who eat alone in the lunchroom and risk the lowest self-esteem. Shannon Valley would disagree that some kids are “totally” alone. Virtually everyone will belong to Techniques a group eventually, she says. “There are the preps, the cheerleaders, the goths, punks, ravers, gay cliques, racial cliques, the freaks, headbangers, the smart cliques, the whole bohemian type. Pyramid Of Giza Essay Example. Nobody is Techniques totally alone. Even the outsiders have a loser clique,” says Valley, 15, of Houston. Being popular usually involves different traits for boys and girls. The No. 1 requirement for henry james, young boys is athletic ability, Patricia Adler says. “And there is Essay Etching a coolness, a toughness, a need to model this macho masculinity to prove themselves.” For girls, it is “first looks, and then clothes, socioeconomic status.” The breakdown mirrors traditional gender roles, she says. Essay. “Men are socialized to achieve, and girls to catch a man.” Other experts stress that popularity is not always the key: Belonging is, to Essay Etching Techniques some group — sometimes, to a basic development any group (Cliques Make Fitting in a Tough Task for Teens in High School, 2001). The dangers and threats of cliques in high schools are all but unknown. Essay. Many school related tragedies have been traced back to the antagonists’ role as an outcast at their school and community. The Columbine shootings were at the beginning of a basic to child theories, this new issue. In the aftermath of the Techniques, shootings, there was a great deal of debate about what “provoked” the Pyramid Essay, killers and whether anything could have been done to Techniques prevent the introduction development theories, crime. The reality of social cliques in Etching, high schools was a frequent topic of discussion. Many argued that the boys’ isolation from the rest of their classmates prompted a feelings of helplessness, insecurity and depression, as well as a strong desire for attention (Columbine High School Massacre, 2003). Many clique clashes may even result in to child, everyday violence and prejudice. Etching. An excerpt from an article in a magazine states a specific case that is undoubtedly common among high schoolers: The dynamics between cliques are often very raw, particularly for the groups at development the extremes of the Essay Etching, social spectrum: jocks and outcasts. Even at the relatively well-integrated Liberty High School in Bethlehem, Pa., it is not unheard of for Differential and Types Essay, the punks–who often sport black clothing, tattoos and spiky hair–to be taunted in the hallways. “They call ’em dirty, say stuff like ‘Why don’t you bathe?'” says a student. Often it is the athletes who dish out the Essay Etching Techniques, abuse. Haakon Espeland, 14, switched out of writing, Brooklyn’s Fort Hamilton High, where he was one of the “freaks.” The reason he fled: a stream of abuse, starting on his first day at school, when “all these huge people beat on me, basically for being there (A Curse of Cliques, 2001). What many articles fail to mention are the positive attributes social cliques bring to students. The close knit, family-like groups give a network of Techniques, dependable friends to fall back on. There is no worrying about whether or not they will understand your specific problem because all the members are so similar it is almost guaranteed that they have been through it at one time or another. It also helps shape personality through role-playing. Most sociologists agree that it is very healthy and Differential Works of Differentials Essay examples, almost necessary for adolescents to take part in activities that will test who they actually are. By trial and error most teenagers find their own individuality. “Hanging with the right crowd makes you feel you are worth something and are needed,” says Lucas Ruiz, 17, of Essay Techniques, Junction City, Kan. “If you are by yourself, it is Works Essay examples hard to relate to other people. Essay Etching Techniques. You never have someone to confide in, and basically that is what the social group gives you.” The socialization in high school is writing help almost as important as the formal education received in Essay Etching Techniques, the classroom. It is obvious that there are both positive and negative outcomes of How a Differential Works of Differentials Essay, social cliques, including extreme depression a healthy feeling of acceptance at the opposite swing of the pendulum. Whether or not it has its dire attributes, it is crucial and indispensable for growth of the child’s mind. Social groups lend a perfect environment for the experimentation of new individual personalities, of which one combination of the total will stay with the adolescent for Essay Etching, the remainder of their lives. Is this the perfect essay for cancer paper, you? Save time and order Sociology: Social Cliques in High School. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Sociology: Social Cliques in High School. A: Summary Cliques are referred to as a small group, with similar interests or other features in common, who spend time together and do not readily allow others to join… Effects of Cliques on Teen Identity. Do you know the percentage of teenagers in America that are a part of a clique? Cliques have a tremendous effect on the lives of teens because they are a… Should school start later, for high school students? “It’s eight a clock in Techniques, the morning, and I just rolled out of bed. Pyramid Example. Today, Thursday is a late start at North Farmington High School. I am wide-awake and ready… Do you think all high school students should be required to wear a uniform to school? Do you think all high school students should be required to wear a uniform to school? Should high school students be required to wear uniforms? Parents and school administrators have… High School Uniforms. The debate for school uniforms still rages on. School administrators taking one side of the argument. Even though uniforms are difficult to enforce in public schools, school uniforms should be… Should school uniforms be mandatory in high schools? School uniforms should be mandatory in high schools. They provide more focused and togetherness throughout the school day for students. Children often feel less social pressure when everyone in the…
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Etching Process - EtchingInsightsDeath penalty has been an inalienable part of human society and its legal system for centuries, regarded as a necessary deterrent to dangerous crimes and a way to liberate the Essay Etching Techniques, community from dangerous criminals. However, later on this type of punishment came to be regarded as a crime against humanistic ideals by many, and its validity in a basic to child theories, the legal system has been questioned. Until now, the debate rages on. This resulted in a wide discrepancy of laws on this issue. Some nations including China, the US, Iran, Belarus, and others preserve the death penalty as an option, while others like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and almost all European nations have abolished capital punishment. Still others keep the norm in their legislations, but have de facto suspended execution of criminals sentenced to capital punishment. This paper will seek to prove that death penalty has to be preserved as a valid means of prevention serious crimes. It will examine the Essay Etching, effect of death penalty on society and its relevance to the protection of interests of common citizens. The history of cancer paper death penalty is almost as old as the history of mankind. Various means of capital punishment involved burning, hanging, drowning, crucifixion, breaking on Essay Etching Techniques the will, boiling to death, electrocution, firing squad, gassing - the list can be continued. The choice of a particular method in Europe in the Middle Age, for a basic introduction theories, instance, depended on the social status of the condemned. Painless and respectable ways were reserved for the aristocracy; and more painful for the common people, such as hanging or breaking on the wheel. In other cases, the choice of the method was warranted by the time of crime: witches and heretics had to Essay Etching Techniques be burned at and Types, the stake. Capital punishment was envisaged for a broad array of crimes, “including robbery and theft, even if nobody was physically harmed in the action” (Wikipedia). The French Revolution introduced a more humane execution method, the guillotine that cut off the heads of the condemned. The first decision to abolish capital punishment was made by the Grand Duke Leopold II of Habsburg in Granducato di Toscana (Tuscany) on 30 November 1786. The duke cancelled the penalty and ordered to Essay Etching Techniques destroy all the Pyramid of Giza example, instruments of murder in his nation after being influenced by the book the Essay, Italian Cesare Beccaria Dei Delitti e Delle Pene "On Crimes and Punishments". The anniversary of the decree is since 2000 celebrated as a holiday in Tuscany. In 2004, as reports Amnesty International, 3,797 people in 25 nations were executed. Introduction Development! China accounts for Etching, the bulk of these executions - 3,400 cases. Kuwait is the leader in Fast Addiction, the number of executions per 100,000 residents - 400 compared to 260 in China and 230 in Essay, Iran, the runner-up on lady henry james the total number, 159 (Wikipedia). In most nations, death penalty is Techniques, used to punish criminals for war crimes or serious crimes associated with physical injury. In Asia (Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand) it is used to punish for cancer paper, drug-related crimes, even though these crimes are mot related to physical injury. As part of anti-death penalty movement, this call to repeal this measure has been upheld by various international organizations. Essay! For instance, “the United Nations Convention on Essay the Rights of the Child, which among other things forbids capital punishment for juveniles, has been signed and ratified by all countries except the USA and Etching Techniques, Somalia” (Wikipedia). Some international conventions such as the Second Optional Protocol to the portrait james the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Sixth Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights have been adopted, although they only bind nations that have ratified them. Organizations like the European Union demand from new members the Etching, abolition of death penalty as a condition of entry. Thus, there is a significant pressure on nations to cancel it. Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch are two prominent organisations fighting against death penalty. The issues involved in the discussion of death penalty usually focus around two main parts. First, this punishment is analysed from of a lady henry james, a purely utilitarian perspective in Essay, an effort to find out whether application of capital punishment really helps to deter crime and reduce the risk of recidivism, when criminals commit repeated crimes. The evidence for this is sought in crime rates in regions and Pyramid Essay, nations where executions are carried out. Essay Etching Techniques! Second, supporters or opponents of death penalty need to find out cancer paper whether this penalty can be acknowledged on moral grounds, solving the problem of whether human beings are justified in killing other human beings. Although the arguments stated remain basically the same throughout history of the discussion, evidence can vary, and the findings, although controversial, can tilt the public opinion to one or the other side. Thus, the support for death penalty surges in nations where especially outrageous murders take place. Essay Etching Techniques! On the contrary, a lower criminal rate reduces the support. Death penalty, in my view, has to be supported on the ground of just retribution for murder. Still, I do not believe in death as a form of punishment for drug dealers, however heinous their activities might be, since they did not violate human lives. Political crimes should not be punished with death either, as this would open the way to political repression and physical elimination of writing political rivals, as it happened in Stalin's times in the Soviet Union. However, when a person murders another person, death is the right kind of retribution. This is analogous to Techniques penalties imposed for instance for robbery or theft - the criminal often has to forfeit one's possessions for taking the property of of a henry another person. Similarly, it is fair that one who has consciously taken the life of another person should suffer death. In a research paper “Is Capital Punishment Morall Required? The Relevance of Essay Techniques Life-Life Tradeoffs” by Cass R. Susstein and Adrian Vermeule, the authors suggest that death penalty is morally justified on the basis of distinction between acts and omissions. Most opponents of death penalty argue that it is barbaric for a government to theories take a human life since there is a difference between an act, such as killing a person, and omission, such as refraining from the act. But, researchers argue, by forbidding official penalty, government officials de facto allow numerous private killings that are left unpunished. However, a government that fails to Techniques maintain the welfare of the citizens by omitting death penalty from the criminal code will leave citizens unprotected and decrease their welfare “just as would a state that failed to enact simple environmental measures that could save a great many lives” (Sunstein, Vermeule 2005:41). Therefore, punishing the criminals is a necessary part of any state policy. How A Works And Types Of Differentials Essay Examples! The interests of victims or potential victims of murders cannot be overlooked in order to consider the interests of the Essay Techniques, criminals guilty of the most heinous crime - taking a person's life. One of the most important arguments in favor of death penalty is the fact that it helps to introduction to child theories deter capital crimes. This issue is debatable since there have been suggestions that application of death penalty has no serious effects on the rate of murders, for instance. Besides, opponents of death penalty claim that it is not possible to Essay Etching deter so-called crimes-of-passion committed in an emotionally affected state when a person is not capable of thinking about future punishment. However, there is evidence that application of capital punishment can indeed prevent crimes, even those that are committed by intimates. A study by Joanna M. Shepherd “Murders of Passion, Execution Delays, and Deterrence of Crime” points to the existence of a correlation between the number of crimes and death penalty. Pyramid Of Giza! To find this relationship, she looks at monthly murder and execution data using least squares and negative binomial estimations. Her conclusion is that one execution helps to avert three killings on Etching Techniques average. Capital punishment also has an effect on murders by Fast Food Addiction intimates and crimes of passion. The influence is evidenced by rates of crimes committed by victims of Essay Etching Techniques both European and Afro-American descent. The deterring effect of death penalty, however, was found to be reduced by longer waits on the death row. As a result of this trend, “one less murder is cancer paper, committed for Essay Techniques, every 2.75-years reduction in help, death row waits” (Shepherd 2003:27). Another paper exploring the relationship between crime rates and death penalty is “State Executions, Deterrence and the Incidence of Murder” by Paul R. Zimmerman uses U.S. state-level data over the years 1978-1997 to find out Essay Techniques if capital punishment indeed has a deterrent effect. The paper, in evaluating the deterrent effect of capital punishment, adjusts the data for the influence of cancer paper simultaneity and therefore comes up with estimates of a deterrent effect that greatly those of previous findings. Zimmermann has found that “the estimates imply that a state execution deters approximately fourteen murders per Essay Techniques year on average” Zimmerman 2004:163). Besides, he has established that it is the announcement of death penalty that drives the effect. The above-mentioned findings suggest that the deterrent effect of capital punishment is present and should not be neglected. If the killing of one criminal can prevent at least three, or fourteen deaths, by different calculations, this opportunity has to a basic to child development theories be exploited. We cannot forgo an opportunity to Etching Techniques save the lives of honest, innocent, law-abiding citizens. Although any human life is precious, the efforts of the society have always been directed mostly at maintaining the well-being of those who live by its rules. They are getting more economic benefits that anti-social elements and can enjoy a more secure future. Thus, these people have to be protected by Fast Addiction the law in Essay Etching, the first place. Death penalty, however improper it may seem from the point of view of defending criminals' interests, is “a guarantee of no repeat crime” (NCWC). Evidence of repeat offenders returning to normal life is scarce, and instances of recidivism are abundant. Once again, the The Great of Giza example, solution depends on Techniques the main goal set for the legal system: is How a examples, it to defend the interests of everybody alike or is Etching, it designed to the portrait support those who spend their lives without harming each other? If we side with those who believe that the system should in the first place support those who are law-abiding, the focus will be on Techniques prevention of deaths though murders as the the portrait lady henry james, greatest evil generated by crime. Despite the Etching, above-mentioned deterrent effect, we cannot effectively prevent crimes by first-time offenders. It is much easier to prevent those by of a henry james repeat offenders. One of the most outrageous instances supporting the above claim was the incident that happened in Alabama prison in 2001: Cuhuatemoc Hinricky Peraita, 25, an inmate who was serving life without parole for 3 murders was found guilty of Etching killing a fellow inmate (Recidivism). The killer was finally sentenced to electrocution. However, if he had been sentenced to death right after the first murder, the essays, other three could have been prevented. The life of an inmate who died at the hands of Peraita is Essay, no less valuable than his own. In fact, I strongly believe that it could have been more valuable: maybe that person has repented and The Great Essay, was going to return to the society a re-born person? Maybe that person was not guilty of such a heinous crime as murder? Unfortunately, there is too much evidence that certain individuals tend to commit murder while others are less prone to it. Essay Techniques! Death penalty would then free society from the return of such individuals. Capital punishment as penalty for murder also has a moral effect on society. It signals to the criminals that murder is a serious crime the community feels strongly about. In fact, it creates the useful perception of human life as something so precious that taking it has no justification. Death penalty suggests that there is a boundary that should not be overstepped. How A Differential Works And Types Of Differentials Essay! This should send a message to Etching Techniques society members that taking a person's property, however reprehensible, is not to be condemned via taking a life. On the contrary, murder will not be tolerated, and writing, people who have committed this crime should be removed from society as incapable of social living. Another common argument given in favour of death penalty is an economical consideration. Comparisons differ depending on the bias of the Essay Etching Techniques, people carrying out the comparison. Some say that “the death penalty, because it involves so many required post-trial hearings, reviews, appeals, etc. ends up costing more than life imprisonment” (NCWC). However, these extra expenses have to be diminished through increasing the essays, cost-efficiency of the legal system, and society that is spending huge amounts on legal services would benefit from such a reform. Essay Techniques! Just considering the cost of Addiction Essay keeping a 25-year-old inmate incarcerated till the end of one's life is startling and endorses the view that society has to select death penalty as a cheaper option. Opponents of death penalty have given a number of arguments to Essay support their position. In the first place, it is opposed by people on religious grounds. Representatives of various religious groups claim that only God can take a human life and human being are then not sanctioned to kill each other. However, in the Hebrew Scriptures there is evidence that Jews applied death penalty to criminals for selected types of crime. The only instance in the Christian Scriptures includes punishing by death “for lying about Church donations: Acts 5:1 to 11 describe how a couple, Ananias and Sapphira sold a piece of Fast Food Essay real estate” (Religious Tolerance). The couple was killed for lying about the size of the proceeds from the Essay Etching Techniques, sale of a house in an effort to conceal part of their income. Proceeding to the Christian Scriptures, one finds some evidence that was said to be indicative of Christ's opposition to death penalty questionable. Thus, there is introduction to child development theories, a renowned episode with the female sinner (John 8:3 - 8:11) who was supposed to be stoned to Etching death and saved by Christ saying “He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her”. Jesus was not in How a Differential Works of Differentials, fact censuring the right to kill the woman according to Essay Etching the ancient law. Writing Help! Besides, there is evidence suggesting that this passage was not present in the original version of the Scripture and was later added by an unknown person (Religious Tolerance). Besides, the Essay Techniques, passage from Matthew 5:21-22 is supposed to condemn killing: "Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and essays, whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment. Etching! " These words implicate a person who kills out of anger, but is hardly applicable to cases where a person is the portrait of a henry, murdered through a verdict of qualified jury. Thus, Christian intolerance of Essay Etching death penalty appears doubtful. To negate death first of all would mean the moratorium on How a Works of Differentials Essay wars that take lives of more people than death penalty. The war casualties are often innocent peaceful people who just happened to be caught in the cross-fire, unlike recidivist criminals who end up on death row. Yet most Christian states prepare military doctrines and demonstrate to each other readiness to employ their military machine to kill people if necessary. Still others are practicing war if it suits their political goals. How significantly will then abolition of death penalty forward the goal of living a Christian life? The same argument applies to the anti-death penalty claim that the legal system should not be allowed to execute because there is a possibility of a legal mistake that will result in the death of a wrong person (NCWC). On these grounds, wars have to Techniques be forbidden in the first place since they keep killing people that are not to Fast blame at all. Essay! They either do their best fighting for cancer paper, their motherland in expectation of a heroic death or just, as mentioned before, get caught in cross-fire. Thus, any nation that does not exclude a war should not exclude death penalty that is a much more balanced mechanism. Besides, the legal system is unfortunately prone to mistakes, as are all social institutions, but this does not mean that they should not be used to Essay Etching carry out a basic theories their functions. Most other penalties like imprisonment take a heavy toll on human life, yet they are applied to criminals, even if there is a threat of ruining a person's life by mistake. Besides, returning to the incident in Alabama in the previous section, a person dying at the hands of an acknowledged murderer in prison is also a fatal mistake of the legal system. If the system rightfully recognized the capacity to continue killing in the criminal, his final victim would have saved his life. One more argument states that since every person has “an inherent right to dignity and life”, most nations have abolished death penalty: “civilized countries don't have it” (NCWC). Techniques! First, it is still preserved in many nations including the US that fits into many criteria of a civilized country. Besides, quite a few nations that have it in their penal codes like Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Barbado, Bangladesh enjoy a relatively low crime rate. This underscores that death penalty adequately serves the main purpose of the legal system: to protect law-abiding citizens. There are many more issues that can be considered with regard to How a Differential Works of Differentials examples death penalty. One can evaluate the Essay, racist argument, for instance, claiming that death penalty is The Great Pyramid, more often imposed on Afro-Americans than European Americans and see how it relates to crime rate in the two groups. Besides, ethical perspectives on Essay Techniques this issue can be diverse and essays writing help, supported by many different theories. With the arguments presented above, however, it seems clear that there are many valid reasons in Etching, support of death penalty. The Great! On the contrary, anti-death penalty arguments need to be assessed critically, as, for instance, the religious argument. Further research into the topic is necessary, with more authoritative studies on the deterrent effect of death penalty on the criminal rates, tracing various states in Essay Techniques, the US as well as evidence from other nations. It would also be interesting to examine the historical background of nations that have both capital punishment in their law codes and extremely low crime rate to introduction to child development theories see how death penalty affects crime rates. On the more practical level, it is my deepest belief that currently capital punishment has to be preserved in order to protect potential victims. Any consideration of the crime rate cancellation would become viable if the crime rate at least for murders goes sharply down. Essay! At present, however, capital punishment serves as an important barrier on the way of criminals ready to take another person's life.