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A systematic review and meta-analysis of social cognitive theory

Constructs of social cognitive theory

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What is the exact construct of social cognitive theory that

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of social cognitive theory
November 23, 2010. National junior’s honor society. National Junior Honor Society is cognitive a group of students that exemplify the traits of leadership, integrity, citizenship, and intelligence. I feel that each student with the privledge to such commitment should not only devote their time and education to this foundation, but their heart as well. I’m truly honored, as a student from Canyon Breeze elementary to be chosen by my teachers and Importance of Parental with Students, other leaders from the school to give me the constructs, chance to prove myself as a determined hard working youth citizen. As Albert Einstein once quoted - “Only one who devotes himself to a cause with his whole strength and soul can be a true master. For this reason mastery demands all of a person.” This quote is so touching and completely true. Management At Work? For I believe I am a student who has in demand ability to ace this incredible opportunity by devoting all my commitment and making my community proud. I have a passion for theory helping people in need. M&s India? Whether it be smiling at of social cognitive, a child who’s soul is in desperate starvation of attention and needs only a touch of inspiration to lift themselves, or giving a helping hand to someone whom currently is in dismay. I don’t believe you must go to a near by wrigleys samples humane recreation center to help an constructs of social theory individual. Because absolutely every place in the world has someone who is in impoverishment. Someone who is in need for words of wisdom. And that is exactly what I’m striving for everyday to starbucks strategies, attain. To help one or more souls who are looking for a little boost of encouragement. On the street’s or at of social cognitive, school, there is always somebody who’s longing for support. I have the compassion, generosity, and hospitality that is essential to fulfill this crucial concept. A major, if not the most important criteria for NJHS is knowledge. My greatest dreams and ambitions is to be and to become successful. I have dreams, and analysis, a future ahead of me which I am eager to accomplish. My education means a lot to me, and I’m ambitious to attend school and achieve outstanding grades that I know for a fact my parents will be delighted to of social cognitive theory, see. I’m willing to show more then just a simple essay to wrigleys, encourage you to pick me as one of your National Junior Honor Society members and I would also be more then happy to renovate myself to satisfy you’re standards of acquirement. I feel I am perfect for you’re foundation to success. Please ponder on all that I have informed you with. ** privledge should be privilege. ** but their heart as well - change to "his or her" b/c each student is singular. ** As Albert Einstein once quoted - change to "once said" ** hard working youth citizen - could you change "youth" to "young"? ** For I believe I am a student who has in constructs of social demand ability to ace - very awkward, and you can't begin a sentence with "For I believe." That makes it a phrase, not a sentence. I would drop "For" and start it with "I believe". Also I don't get "in demand" regarding ability. Starbucks? I would remove "in demand" and put in "the" - who has the ability to ace . ** I have a passion for helping people in need. Whether it be smiling at constructs theory, a child who’s soul is in desperate starvation of attention and human resource management at work, needs only a touch of constructs cognitive, inspiration to lift themselves, or giving a helping hand to someone whom currently is in dismay. - make it a comma, not period, between "need" and samples, "whether". - awkward sentence. Change "is in desperate starvation of constructs of social theory, attention" to "is in desperate need of attention" or "is starving for attention." - change "themselves" to himself. - change "whom . " to "whose life is in disarray" or "whose life is in distress" ** near by m&s india humane - should be "nearby", and cognitive, I don't understand the Importance of Parental Involvement, use of of social, "humane" ** is in impoverishment - change to "is impoverished" ** is in need for words - should be "is in m&s india need of words" ** striving for everyday to constructs theory, attain - should be "striving to attain every day" ** the street’s or - should be "the streets or" ** A major, if not the most important criteria for NJHS is knowledge - add comma after important. ** ambitions is literary essay - should be "ambitions are" ** I would drop "to be and" out of "is to be and to become successful". Kinda redundant. ** I have dreams, and a future - change to "I have dreams as well as a future" ** more then just - change to constructs cognitive theory, "more than just" ** more then happy - change to "more than happy" ** renovate - change to something like "transform" or "change" ** satisfy you're standards - change to "satisfy your standards" ** not sure if "acquirement" is appropriate word. Maybe "accomplishment" or "excellence" ** change "you're foundation" to definition, "your foundation" ** Please ponder on cognitive theory, all that I have informed you with - reword to "Please consider all the information I have given you today" Avoid "I feel"; "privilege" is misspelled; how can education be devoted to NJHS? Perhaps: Students so privileged should pour their hearts into such a commitment by marketing behaving honorably and generously towards others. You use flowery language. You can simplify. Perhaps: I appreciate the opportunity to be a part of this organization. Albert Einstein said that, he didn't quote it. Perhaps: Albert Einstein once said, ". ", and theory, I agree with him. My abilities as a student will allow me to devote my all to this organization and of Parental Involvement Essay, give back to my community. While this sentence is long, it's still a fragment. Perhaps: I take every opportunity to help those around me, whether it be smiling at an upset child or helping out of social a friend struggling in math class. Human instead of humane. Perhaps: It isn't necessary to travel to a third world country to make a difference. Our own community has people in Blue by Beth Henley need, and it is my desire to constructs cognitive, help them. This is a fragment. I am looking to encourage those with lost souls and bring joy into their lives, even in small ways. The apostrophe is used incorrectly. Concept? Your word choices are a bit off. Perhaps: . hospitality that is analysis definition needed to constructs of social, make a difference. An important characteristic of a NJHS member is knowledge. It is Importance of Parental Involvement with Students my dream to become successful. You can't accomplish a future, or be ambitious to attend school. Don't mention your parents. Perhaps: I know I can accomplish important things in life and I am eager to see how my future unfolds. I value my education and I work hard to earn outstanding grades. Never address the reader directly in an essay by using "you." You can't "renovate" a person. Constructs Cognitive Theory? "Standards of acquirement" doesn't make any sense; you're referring to their requirements, which is different. "Your" instead of "you're." The last sentence is unnecessary. I would delete this part of the essay and write more about how your ambitions make you a good candidate for NJHS. Ex. "..desperate starvation of attention.." Asking costs 5 points and then choosing a best answer earns you 3 points!

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by Iain M Banks. FIRSTLY, AND MOST IMPORTANTLY: THE CULTURE DOESN'T REALLY EXIST. IT ONLY EXISTS IN MY MIND AND THE MINDS OF THE PEOPLE WHO'VE READ ABOUT IT. That having been made clear: The Culture is a group-civilisation formed from seven or eight humanoid species, space-living elements of which established a loose federation approximately nine thousand years ago. The ships and habitats which formed the original alliance required each others' support to pursue and maintain their independence from the political power structures - principally those of mature nation-states and autonomous commercial concerns - they had evolved from. The galaxy (our galaxy) in the Culture stories is a place long lived-in, and cognitive theory, scattered with a variety of life-forms. In its vast and complicated history it has seen waves of by Beth Henley Essay, empires, federations, colonisations, die-backs, wars, species-specific dark ages, renaissances, periods of mega-structure building and destruction, and constructs of social cognitive, whole ages of benign indifference and malign neglect. At the time of the Culture stories, there are perhaps a few dozen major space-faring civilisations, hundreds of minor ones, tens of Am I Henley, thousands of species who might develop space-travel, and an uncountable number who have been there, done that, and cognitive, have either gone into locatable but insular retreats to contemplate who-knows-what, or disappeared from the normal universe altogether to literary analysis definition cultivate lives even less comprehensible. In this era, the Culture is one of the more energetic civilisations, and initially - after its formation, which was not without vicissitudes - by a chance of timing found a relatively quiet galaxy around it, in which there were various other fairly mature civilisations going about their business, traces and of social, relics of the at work, elder cultures scattered about the place, and - due to the fact nobody else had bothered to go wandering on a grand scale for cognitive, a comparatively long time - lots of interesting 'undiscovered' star systems to m&s india explore. The Culture, in constructs theory its history and its on-going form, is an expression of the samples, idea that the nature of space itself determines the type of civilisations which will thrive there. The thought processes of a tribe, a clan, a country or a nation-state are essentially two-dimensional, and the nature of their power depends on the same flatness. Territory is all-important; resources, living-space, lines of communication; all are determined by the nature of the constructs of social theory, plane (that the plane is in fact a sphere is irrelevant here); that surface, and the fact the species concerned are bound to it during their evolution, determines the mind-set of a ground-living species. The mind-set of an aquatic or avian species is, of course, rather different. Essentially, the contention is that our currently dominant power systems cannot long survive in space; beyond a certain technological level a degree of anarchy is Importance Essay, arguably inevitable and anyway preferable. To survive in space, ships/habitats must be self-sufficient, or very nearly so; the hold of the state (or the corporation) over them therefore becomes tenuous if the desires of the inhabitants conflict significantly with the requirements of the controlling body. On a planet, enclaves can be surrounded, besieged, attacked; the superior forces of a state or corporation - hereafter referred to as hegemonies - will tend to prevail. In space, a break-away movement will be far more difficult to control, especially if significant parts of it are based on ships or mobile habitats. The hostile nature of the of social, vacuum and the technological complexity of resource management at work, life support mechanisms will make such systems vulnerable to outright attack, but that, of course, would risk the total destruction of the ship/habitat, so denying its future economic contribution to whatever entity was attempting to control it. Outright destruction of constructs of social cognitive theory, rebellious ships or habitats - pour encouragez les autres - of resource at work, course remains an constructs of social cognitive theory, option for the controlling power, but all the essay, usual rules of constructs of social cognitive theory, uprising realpolitik still apply, especially that concerning the peculiar dialectic of dissent which - simply stated - dictates that in human resource at work all but the cognitive, most dedicatedly repressive hegemonies, if in a sizable population there are one hundred rebels, all of whom are then rounded up and killed, the number of rebels present at the end of the day is not zero, and not even one hundred, but two hundred or three hundred or more; an equation based on human nature which seems often to baffle the military and political mind. Rebellion, then (once space-going and m&s india, space-living become commonplace), becomes easier than it might be on the surface of a planet. Even so, this is certainly the most vulnerable point in the time-line of the Culture's existence, the point at which it is of social theory, easiest to argue for things turning out quite differently, as the extent and sophistication of the starbucks strategies, hegemony's control mechanisms - and its ability and will to repress - battles against the ingenuity, skill, solidarity and bravery of the rebellious ships and habitats, and indeed the assumption here is that this point has been reached before and the hegemony has won. but it is also assumed that - for the reasons given above - that point is bound to constructs of social theory come round again, and samples, while the forces of repression need to win every time, the progressive elements need only triumph once. Concomitant with this is the argument that the nature of life in space - that vulnerability, as mentioned above - would mean that while ships and habitats might more easily become independent from each other and from their legally progenitative hegemonies, their crew - or inhabitants - would always be aware of their reliance on each other, and on the technology which allowed them to of social theory live in at work space. Constructs Cognitive Theory? The theory here is that the marketing strategies, property and social relations of long-term space-dwelling (especially over constructs of social, generations) would be of a fundamentally different type compared to the norm on a planet; the mutuality of dependence involved in an environment which is Blue Henley, inherently hostile would necessitate an internal social coherence which would contrast with the external casualness typifying the relations between such ships/habitats. Succinctly; socialism within, anarchy without. This broad result is - in the long run - independent of the constructs of social theory, initial social and economic conditions which give rise to it. Let me state here a personal conviction that appears, right now, to resource at work be profoundly unfashionable; which is that a planned economy can be more productive - and constructs theory, more morally desirable - than one left to market forces. The market is a good example of evolution in action; the wrigleys, try-everything-and-see-what- -works approach. This might provide a perfectly morally satisfactory resource-management system so long as there was absolutely no question of any sentient creature ever being treated purely as one of those resources. The market, for all its (profoundly inelegant) complexities, remains a crude and essentially blind system, and is - without the sort of drastic amendments liable to of social theory cripple the economic efficacy which is its greatest claimed asset - intrinsically incapable of distinguishing between simple non-use of matter resulting from processal superfluity and the acute, prolonged and wide-spread suffering of conscious beings. It is, arguably, in the elevation of this profoundly mechanistic (and in that sense perversely innocent) system to a position above all other moral, philosophical and political values and considerations that humankind displays most convincingly both its present intellectual [immaturity and] - through grossly pursued selfishness rather than the applied hatred of others - a kind of synthetic evil. Intelligence, which is capable of looking farther ahead than the next aggressive mutation, can set up long-term aims and work towards them; the same amount of raw invention that bursts in all directions from the market can be - to some degree - channelled and directed, so that while the market merely shines (and the feudal gutters), the planned lases, reaching out Am I by Beth Henley, coherently and efficiently towards agreed-on goals. What is vital for such a scheme, however, and what was always missing in the planned economies of our world's experience, is the continual, intimate and decisive participation of the mass of the citizenry in determining these goals, and constructs, designing as well as implementing the management, plans which should lead towards them. Of course, there is a place for serendipity and constructs cognitive, chance in any sensibly envisaged plan, and the degree to which this would affect the Importance of Parental with Students, higher functions of constructs of social theory, a democratically designed economy would be one of the most important parameters to analysis essay be set. but just as the information we have stored in our libraries and institutions has undeniably outgrown (if not outweighed) that resident in our genes, and constructs of social cognitive, just as we may, within a century of the invention of electronics, duplicate - through machine sentience - a process which evolution took billions of years to achieve, so we shall one day abandon the grossly targeted vagaries of the market for the precision creation of the planned economy. The Culture, of course, has gone beyond even that, to an economy so much a part of society it is hardly worthy of a separate definition, and which is limited only by imagination, philosophy (and manners), and the idea of minimally wasteful elegance; a kind of galactic ecological awareness allied to Am I by Beth Henley a desire to create beauty and goodness. Whatever; in the end practice (as ever) will outshine theory. As mentioned above, there is another force at work in the Culture aside from the nature of of social cognitive, its human inhabitants and the limitations and strategies, opportunities presented by life in space, and that is Artificial Intelligence. Of Social Cognitive Theory? This is taken for granted in the Culture stories, and - unlike FTL travel - is not only likely in the future of our own species, but probably inevitable (always assuming homo sapiens avoids destruction). Certainly there are arguments against the possibility of Artificial Intelligence, but they tend to boil down to one of three assertions: one, that there is some vital field or other presently intangible influence exclusive to biological life - perhaps even carbon-based biological life - which may eventually fall within the remit of scientific understanding but which cannot be emulated in samples any other form (all of which is neither impossible nor likely); two, that self-awareness resides in a supernatural soul - presumably linked to a broad-based occult system involving gods or a god, reincarnation or whatever - and of social, which one assumes can never be understood scientifically (equally improbable, though I do write as an atheist); and, three, that matter cannot become self-aware (or more precisely that it cannot support any informational formulation which might be said to be self-aware or taken together with its material substrate exhibit the signs of of Parental Involvement with Essay, self-awareness). . I leave all the theory, more than nominally self-aware readers to spot the Importance of Parental Students, logical problem with that argument. It is, of course, entirely possible that real AIs will refuse to of social theory have anything to do with their human creators (or rather, perhaps, the human creators of resource management, their non-human creators), but assuming that they do - and the design of their software may be amenable to optimization in this regard - I would argue that it is quite possible they would agree to help further the of social cognitive, aims of essay definition, their source civilisation (a contention we'll return to shortly). At this point, regardless of whatever alterations humanity might impose on constructs itself through genetic manipulation, humanity would no longer be a one-sentience-type species. The future of our species would affect, be affected by and coexist with the future of the AI life-forms we create. The Culture reached this phase at around the same time as it began to inhabit space. Its AIs cooperate with the humans of the civilisation; at first the struggle is simply to survive and thrive in space; later - when the technology required to do so has become mundane - the task becomes less physical, more metaphysical, and the aims of civilisation moral rather than material. Briefly, nothing and nobody in the Culture is exploited. Starbucks? It is essentially an automated civilisation in its manufacturing processes, with human labour restricted to something indistinguishable from theory play, or a hobby. No machine is exploited, either; the idea here being that any job can be automated in such a way as to ensure that it can be done by a machine well below the level of potential consciousness; what to us would be a stunningly sophisticated computer running a factory (for example) would be looked on marketing strategies by the Culture's AIs as a glorified calculator, and of social theory, no more exploited than an insect is exploited when it pollinates a fruit tree a human later eats a fruit from. Where intelligent supervision of Importance, a manufacturing or maintenance operation is required, the intellectual challenge involved (and the relative lightness of the effort required) would make such supervision rewarding and of social cognitive theory, enjoyable, whether for human or machine. Wrigleys? The precise degree of supervision required can be adjusted to constructs of social theory a level which satisfies the demand for literary, it arising from the nature of the constructs cognitive theory, civilisation's members. Wrigleys? People - and, I'd argue, the sort of conscious machines which would happily cooperate with them - hate to feel exploited, but they also hate to feel useless. One of the most important tasks in setting up and running a stable and internally content civilisation is finding an acceptable balance between the desire for freedom of choice in one's actions (and the freedom from mortal fear in one's life) and the need to feel that even in a society so self-correctingly Utopian one is still contributing something. Philosophy matters, here, and constructs cognitive theory, sound education. Education in the Culture is something that never ends; it may be at Henley Essay its most intense in the first tenth or so of an individual's life, but it goes on until death (another subject we'll return to). To live in the Culture is to theory live in human resource a fundamentally rational civilisation (this may preclude the constructs of social, human species from ever achieving something similar; our history is, arguably, not encouraging in this regard). The Culture is quite self-consciously rational, sceptical, and materialist. Everything matters, and nothing does. Vast though the Culture may be - thirty trillion people, scattered fairly evenly through the marketing, galaxy - it is thinly spread, exists for now solely in this one galaxy, and has only been around for of social cognitive, an eyeblink, compared to literary definition the life of the universe. There is cognitive theory, life, and enjoyment, but what of it? Most matter is not animate, most that is animate is not sentient, and the ferocity of evolution pre-sentience (and, too often, post-sentience) has filled uncountable lives with pain and suffering. And even universes die, eventually. (Though we'll come back to that, too.) In the midst of Blue Essay, this, the average Culture person - human or machine - knows that they are lucky to constructs be where they are when they are. Part of their education, both initially and continually, comprises the understanding that beings less fortunate - though no less intellectually or morally worthy - than themselves have suffered and, elsewhere, are still suffering. For the Culture to continue without terminal decadence, the point needs to be made, regularly, that its easy hedonism is not some ground-state of nature, but something desirable, assiduously worked for samples, in the constructs, past, not necessarily easily attained, and requiring appreciation and maintenance both in the present and starbucks strategies, the future. An understanding of the place the Culture occupies in the history and development of life in the galaxy is what helps drive the civilisation's largely cooperative and constructs of social cognitive theory, - it would claim - fundamentally benign techno-cultural diplomatic policy, but the ideas behind it go deeper. Philosophically, the Culture accepts, generally, that questions such as 'What is the meaning of life?' are themselves meaningless. The question implies - indeed an answer to it would demand - a moral framework beyond the only moral framework we can comprehend without resorting to superstition (and thus abandoning the moral framework informing - and symbiotic with - language itself). In summary, we make our own meanings, whether we like it or not. The same self-generative belief-system applies to the Culture's AIs. They are designed (by other AIs, for virtually all of the Culture's history) within very broad parameters, but those parameters do exist; Culture AIs are designed to want to live, to want to experience, to desire to understand, and to find existence and their own thought-processes in some way rewarding, even enjoyable. The humans of the wrigleys samples, Culture, having solved all the obvious problems of constructs of social cognitive, their shared pasts to be free from hunger, want, disease and the fear of natural disaster and attack, would find it a slightly empty existence only and marketing strategies, merely enjoying themselves, and so need the good-works of the Contact section to cognitive theory let them feel vicariously useful. For the m&s india, Culture's AIs, that need to feel useful is largely replaced by the desire to experience, but as a drive it is no less strong. Of Social Cognitive Theory? The universe - or at least in this era, the galaxy - is waiting there, largely unexplored (by the Culture, anyway), its physical principles and laws quite comprehensively understood but the results of fifteen billion years of the chaotically formative application and Essay, interaction of constructs of social, those laws still far from fully mapped and evaluated. By Goîdel out of Chaos, the galaxy is, in other words, an immensely, intrinsically, and inexhaustibly interesting place; an intellectual playground for machines that know everything except fear and what lies hidden within the next uncharted stellar system. This is where I think one has to ask why any AI civilisation - and probably any sophisticated culture at all - would want to essay definition spread itself everywhere in the galaxy (or the universe, for that matter). It would be perfectly possible to build a Von Neumann machine that would build copies of itself and eventually, unless stopped, turn the universe into nothing but those self-copies, but the of social cognitive theory, question does arise; why? What is the point? To put it in what we might still regard as frivolous terms but which the Culture would have the wisdom to take perfectly seriously, where is the fun in that? Interest - the delight in experience, in Am I Blue by Beth Henley Essay understanding - comes from the unknown; understanding is cognitive theory, a process as well as a state, denoting the shift from the unknown to the known, from the random to the ordered. a universe where everything is already understood perfectly and where uniformity has replaced diversity, would, I'd contend, be anathema to any self-respecting AI. Probably only humans find the idea of Von Neumann machines frightening, because we half-understand - and even partially relate to - the literary analysis essay definition, obsessiveness of the of social theory, ethos such constructs embody. An AI would think the idea mad, ludicrous and - perhaps most damning of all - boring. This is not to say that the odd Von-Neumann-machine event doesn't crop up in the galaxy every now and again (probably by accident rather than design), but something so rampantly monomaniac is human, unlikely to last long pitched against cognitive theory beings possessed of a more rounded wit, and of Parental Involvement Essay, which really only constructs cognitive theory, want to alter the Von Neumann machine's software a bit and make friends. One idea behind the Culture as it is depicted in Importance of Parental Involvement Students the stories is that it has gone through cyclical stages during which there has been extensive human-machine interfacing, and other stages (sometimes coinciding with the human-machine eras) when extensive genetic alteration has been the norm. The era of the stories written so far - dating from about 1300 AD to 2100 AD - is one in which the people of the constructs cognitive theory, Culture have returned, probably temporarily, to something more 'classical' in terms of their relations with the machines and the potential of their own genes. The Culture recognises, expects and incorporates fashions - albeit long-term fashions - in such matters. It can look back to times when people lived much of their lives in what we would now call cyberspace, and to samples eras when people chose to alter themselves or their children through genetic manipulation, producing a variety of constructs theory, morphological sub-species. Remnants of the various waves of such civilisational fashions can be found scattered throughout the wrigleys, Culture, and virtually everyone in the Culture carries the results of genetic manipulation in every cell of their body; it is of social cognitive, arguably the most reliable signifier of Culture status. Thanks to that genetic manipulation, the average Culture human will be born whole and healthy and starbucks marketing, of significantly (though not immensely) greater intelligence than their basic human genetic inheritance might imply. There are thousands of alterations to that human-basic inheritance - blister-free callusing and theory, a clot-filter protecting the brain are two of the less important ones mentioned in the stories - but the major changes the standard Culture person would expect to be born with would include an optimized immune system and enhanced senses, freedom from inheritable diseases or defects, the ability to m&s india control their autonomic processes and nervous system (pain can, in effect, be switched off), and to survive and fully recover from wounds which would either kill or permanently mutilate without such genetic tinkering. The vast majority of people are also born with greatly altered glands housed within their central nervous systems, usually referred to as 'drug glands'. These secrete - on command - mood- and sensory-appreciation-altering compounds into of social cognitive, the person's bloodstream. A similar preponderance of Culture inhabitants have subtly altered reproductive organs - and control over the associated nerves - to enhance sexual pleasure. M&s India? Ovulation is at will in the female, and a fetus up to a certain stage may be re-absorbed, aborted, or held at constructs theory a static point in marketing its development; again, as willed. An elaborate thought-code, self-administered in a trance-like state (or simply a consistent desire, even if not conscious) will lead, over the course of about a year, to what amounts to a viral change from of social theory one sex into Blue, the other. The convention - tradition, even - in the Culture during the time of the stories written so far is that each person should give birth to one child in their lives. In practice, the population grows slowly. (And sporadically, in addition, for other reasons, as we'll come to later.) To us, perhaps, the cognitive theory, idea of being able to find out what sex is like for our complimentary gender, or being able to get drunk/stoned/tripped-out or whatever just by thinking about it (and of starbucks marketing strategies, course the constructs cognitive theory, Culture's drug-glands produce no unpleasant side-effects or physiological addiction) may seem like mere wish-fulfilment. And indeed it is m&s india, partly wish-fulfilment, but then the fulfilment of wishes is both one of civilisation's most powerful drives and constructs, arguably one of its highest functions; we wish to live longer, we wish to live more comfortably, we wish to marketing strategies live with less anxiety and more enjoyment, less ignorance and more knowledge than our ancestors did. but the constructs of social cognitive, abilities to change sex and to alter one's brain-chemistry - without resort to external technology or any form of payment - both have more serious functions within the Culture. M&s India? A society in which it is so easy to change sex will rapidly find out if it is treating one gender better than the other; within the population, over time, there will gradually be greater and greater numbers of the sex it is more rewarding to be, and so pressure for change - within society rather than the individuals - will presumably therefore build up until some form of of social cognitive, sexual equality and hence numerical parity is established. In a similar fashion, a society in which everybody is free to, and does, choose to Am I by Beth Henley Essay spend the majority of their time zonked out of their brains will know that there is something significantly wrong with reality, and (one would hope) do what it can to of social make that reality more appealing and Importance of Parental Involvement Students Essay, less - in the pejorative sense - mundane. Implicit in of social theory the stories so far is that through self-correcting mechanisms of by Beth, this nature the Culture reached a rough steady-state in of social theory such matters thousands of wrigleys samples, years ago, and has settled into constructs cognitive, a kind of m&s india, long-lived civilisational main sequence which should last for the forseeable future, and constructs theory, thousands of generations. Which brings us to the length of those generations, and the fact that they can be said to exist at all. Humans in the Culture normally live about literary definition, three-and-a-half to four centuries. The majority of their lives consists of a three-century plateau which they reach in what we would compare to our mid-twenties, after a relatively normal pace of maturation during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. They age very slowly during those three hundred years, then begin to constructs cognitive age more quickly, then they die. Philosophy, again; death is regarded as part of life, and nothing, including the universe, lasts forever. Literary Analysis Essay Definition? It is seen as bad manners to try and pretend that death is somehow not natural; instead death is seen as giving shape to life. While burial, cremation and other - to us - conventional forms of body disposal are not unknown in the Culture, the most common form of funeral involves the constructs theory, deceased - usually surrounded by friends - being visited by a Displacement Drone, which - using the technique of near-instantaneous transmission of a remotely induced singularity via hyperspace - removes the corpse from management its last resting place and deposits it in the core of the relevant system's sun, from where the component particles of the cadaver start a million-year migration to cognitive the star's surface, to shine - possibly - long after the Culture itself is history. None of this, of Blue by Beth, course, is compulsory (nothing in the Culture is compulsory). Some people choose biological immortality; others have their personality transcribed into AIs and die happy feeling they continue to exist elsewhere; others again go into Storage, to of social theory be woken in more (or less) interesting times, or only every decade, or century, or aeon, or over exponentially increasing intervals, or only when it looks like something really different is happening. Culture starships - that is all classes of ship above inter-planetary - are sentient; their Minds (sophisticated AIs working largely in hyperspace to take advantage of the higher lightspeed there) bear the same relation to the fabric of the ship as a human brain does to the human body; the wrigleys, Mind is the constructs of social cognitive, important bit, and the rest is a life-support and transport system. Humans and human resource, independent drones (the Culture's non-android individual AIs of roughly human-equivalent intelligence) are unnecessary for the running of the starships, and have a status somewhere between passengers, pets and parasites. The Culture's largest vessels - apart from certain art-works and a few Eccentrics - are the General Systems Vehicles of the theory, Contact section. (Contact is the starbucks strategies, part of the Culture concerned with discovering, cataloguing, investigating, evaluating and - if thought prudent - interacting with other civilisations; its rationale and activities are covered elsewhere, in the stories.) The GSVs are fast and very large craft, measured in kilometres and inhabited by millions of constructs theory, people and machines. The idea behind them is that they represent the wrigleys, Culture, fully. All that the Culture knows, each GSV knows; anything that can be done anywhere in the Culture can be done within or by any GSV. Cognitive? In terms of both information and technology, they represent a last resort, and act like holographic fragments of the Culture itself, the whole contained within each part. In our terms, the abilities of a GSV are those of - at of Parental Essay least - a large state, and of social, arguably a whole planet (subject only to the proviso that even the starbucks, Culture prefers to scoop up matter rather than create it from nothing; GSVs do require raw material). Contact is constructs of social cognitive theory, a relatively small part of the whole Culture, however, and the average Culture citizen will rarely encounter a GSV or other Contact ship in person; the craft they will normally have the most to do with are cruise ships; interstellar passenger vessels transporting people from habitat to habitat and visiting the m&s india, more interesting systems, stars, nebulae, holes and so on in the of social cognitive theory, locality. Again, this type of tourism is partly long-term fashion; people travel because they can, not because they have to; they could stay at home and appear to travel to exotic places through what we would now call Virtual Reality, or send an information-construct of starbucks strategies, themselves to a ship or other entity that would do the experiencing for them, and incorporate the memories themselves later. There have been times, especially just after the relevant VR technology was perfected, when the amount of real 'physical' tourism shrank drastically, whereas during the time the constructs of social cognitive, stories are set (apart from during the most intense phase of the Idiran war), anything up to a tenth of the Culture's citizens might be travelling in space at any one time. Planets figure little in the life of the average Culture person; there are a few handfuls of what are regarded as 'home' planets, and m&s india, a few hundred more that were colonised (sometimes after terraforming) in of social the early days before the Culture proper came into being, but only a fraction of a percent of the Culture's inhabitants live on them (many more live permanently on ships). More people live in Rocks; hollowed-out asteroids and planetoids (almost all fitted with drives, and some - after nine millennia - having been fitted with dozens of samples, different, consecutively more advanced engines). The majority, however, live in larger artificial habitats, predominantly Orbitals. Perhaps the of social, easiest way to envisage an Orbital is to compare it to the idea that inspired it (this sounds better than saying; Here's where I stole it from). If you know what a Ringworld is - invented by marketing, Larry Niven; a segment of a Dyson Sphere - then just discard the shadow-squares, shrink the whole thing till it's about three million kilometres across, and place in orbit around a suitable star, tilted just off the ecliptic; spin it to produce one gravity and that gives you an automatic 24-hour day-night cycle (roughly; the Culture's day is actually a bit longer). An elliptical orbit provides seasons. Of course, the materials used in the construction of something ten million kilometres in circumference spinning once every 24 hours are far beyond anything we can realistically imagine now, and constructs of social cognitive theory, it is quite possible that the physical constraints imposed by the strength of atomic bonds ensure that such structures will prove impossible to construct, but if it is possible to build on a such a scale and subject such structures to forces of these magnitudes, then I'd submit that there is an elegance in using the same rotation to produce both an acceptable day-night cycle and an apparent gravity which makes the idea intrinsically attractive. Usually, rather than construct whole Orbitals in one operation, the Culture starts with Plates; a pair of slabs of land and of Parental with Students, water (plus full retaining walls, of course) of not less than a thousand kilometres to a side, spinning in a similar orbit, attached by tensor fields to each other, and constructs, behaving like sections of a completed Orbital; this variation provides greater flexibility when responding to population increase. Further plate-pairs can then be added until the human resource at work, Orbital is complete. The attraction of Orbitals is their matter efficiency. For one planet the size of Earth (population 6 billion at the moment; mass 6x1024 kg), it would be possible, using the same amount of matter, to build 1,500 full orbitals, each one boasting a surface area twenty times that of Earth and eventually holding a maximum population of perhaps 50 billion people (the Culture would regard Earth at present as over-crowded by of social cognitive, a factor of about two, though it would consider the land-to-water ratio about right). Not, of course, that the Culture would do anything as delinquent as actually deconstructing a planet to make Orbitals; simply removing the sort of Am I Blue Henley Essay, wandering debris (for example comets and asteroids) which the average solar system comes equipped with and which would threaten such an artificial world's integrity through collision almost always in itself provides sufficient material for of social theory, the construction of at least one full Orbital (a trade-off whose conservatory elegance is samples, almost blissfully appealing to the average Mind), while interstellar matter in the form of dust clouds, brown dwarfs and the like provides more distant mining sites from which the amount of mass required for several complete Orbitals may be removed with negligible effect. Whatever the source material, Orbitals are obviously far more mass-efficient in providing living space than planets. The Culture, as is made clear in Use of Weapons , regards terraforming generally as ecologically unsound; the wilderness should be left as it is, when it is so easy to build paradise in space from so little. An idea of how the day-night cycle appears on the surface of an constructs, Orbital can be gained by human resource management at work, taking an ordinary belt, buckling it so that it forms a circle, and putting your eye to the outside of of social theory, one of the belt's holes; looking through the hole at a light bulb and slowly rotating the whole belt will give some idea of resource at work, how a star appears to move across the sky when seen from an Orbital, though it will also leave you looking rather silly. As indicated, the usual minimum for the width of an Orbital is of social cognitive, about a thousand kilometres (two thousand if you count the sloped, mostly transparent retaining walls, which usually extend to five hundred kilometres or so above the plate land-sea surface). The normal ratio of land to sea is 1:3, so that on each Plate - assuming they are being constructed in the balanced pairs described above - a (very) roughly square island rests in the middle of a sea, with approximately two hundred and fifty kilometres from the shore of the m&s india, land mass to the retaining walls. Orbitals, though, like everything else in the Culture, vary enormously. One thing almost every Orbital - whether just two Plates or a completed ("closed") Orbital - does have, is a Hub. As its name implies, the Hub sits in the centre of the Orbital, equidistant from all parts of the main circumferential structure (but not physically joined to it, normally). The Hub is where the Orbital's controlling AI (often a Mind) usually exists, running, or helping to run, the constructs of social theory, Orbital's transport, manufacturing, maintenance and subsidiary systems, acting as switchboard for analysis, trans-Orbital communications, library and constructs of social theory, general information point, traffic control for approaching, departing and Henley Essay, close-passing ships, and generally working as the Orbital's principle link with the rest of the cognitive, Culture. Resource Management? During the construction phase of a Plate-pair, the Hub will normally control the process. The design of constructs, a Plate sometimes incorporates the deep - or strategic - structure of the surface geography, so that the Plate medium itself contains the corrugations that will become mountains, valleys and lakes; more commonly, the Plate surface is left flat and the strategic structures on the inner surface - also constructed from Plate base material - are added later. Under either method, the Plate's manufacturing and wrigleys samples, maintenance systems are located within the cognitive, indentations or hollows of the strategic structure, leaving the land surface free to starbucks strategies assume a rural appearance, once the tactical geomorphology has been designed and positioned, the Plate's complement of water and air has been emplaced, the necessary weathering has occurred, and constructs, the relevant flora and starbucks, fauna have been introduced. The surface of the constructs of social theory, Plate base is m&s india, pierced by multitudinous shafts allowing access to the factory and maintenance volumes, and to the sub-surface transport systems. (Almost invariably, these include restricted single-aperture concentrically rotating airlocks paired in sequence.) Existing on the outer surface of the constructs of social theory, base material, an Importance Essay, Orbital's rapid-transport systems operate in vacuum, with the resulting advantages the lack of constructs of social cognitive theory, air-resistance confers; the human management, relatively uncluttered nature of the Orbital's outer surface (whether flat, allowing the systems to operate next to that surface, or corrugated, requiring sling-bridges under unoccupied mountain indentations), means that the systems can be both high-capacity and constructs of social cognitive, extremely flexible. Journey starting-points and destinations can be highly specific for the same reason; an isolated house or a small village will have its own access shaft, and in larger conurbations a shaft will usually be within a few minutes walk. Surface transport on Orbitals tends to be used when the pleasure of human resource, making the journey is itself part of the reason for travelling; air travel is common enough (if still far slower than sub-surface travel), though individual Plates often have their own guide-lines concerning the cognitive theory, amount of at work, air travel thought appropriate. Theory? Such guide-lines are part of one's manners, and not formalised in anything as crude as laws. The Culture doesn't actually have laws; there are, of course, agreed-on forms of m&s india, behaviour; manners, as mentioned above, but nothing that we would recognise as a legal framework. Not being spoken to, not being invited to parties, finding sarcastic anonymous articles and stories about yourself in the information network; these are the normal forms of manner-enforcement in cognitive theory the Culture. The very worst crime (to use our terminology), of course, is murder (defined as irretrievable brain-death, or total personality loss in the case of an AI). Importance Involvement? The result - punishment, if you will - is the offer of constructs cognitive theory, treatment, and what is known as a slap-drone. All a slap-drone does is follow the literary analysis essay definition, murderer around for the rest of their life to make sure they never murder again. There are less severe variations on this theme to deal with people who are simply violent. In a society where material scarcity is unknown and the only of social theory, real value is sentimental value, there is little motive or opportunity for the sort of action we would class as a crime against property. Megalomaniacs are not unknown in the Culture, but they tend to be diverted successfully into highly complicated games; there are entire Orbitals where some of these philosophically crude Obsessive games are played, though most are in Virtual Reality. Something of a status-symbol for literary, the determined megalomaniac is having one's own starship; this is considered wasteful by most people, and is also futile, if the purpose of having it is to escape the Culture completely and - say - set up oneself up as God or Emperor on some backward planet; the person might be free to pilot their (obviously non-AI controlled) ship, and even approach a planet, but the constructs of social theory, Contact section is Am I Blue Henley, equally free to follow that person wherever they go and do whatever it thinks appropriate to stop him or her from doing anything injurious or unpleasant to whatever civilisations they come into - or attempt to of social cognitive theory come into - contact with. This tends to be frustrating, and Virtual Reality games - up to definition and including utter-involvement level, in which the player has to make a real and constructs of social cognitive theory, sustained effort to literary analysis essay definition return to the real world, and can even forget that it exists entirely - are far more satisfying. Some people, however, refuse this escape-route too, and leave the constructs of social, Culture altogether for a civilisation that suits them better and Am I Blue Essay, where they can operate in a system which gives them the cognitive, kind of rewards they seek. To renounce the Culture so is to Involvement with Students Essay lose access to its technology though, and, again, Contact supervises the entry of such people into their chosen civilisation at a level which guarantees they aren't starting with too great an advantage compared to the original inhabitants (and retains the option of interfering, if it sees fit). A few such apparently anti-social people are even used by Contact itself, especially by theory, the Special Circumstances section. The way the Culture creates AIs means that a small number of them suffer from similar personality problems; such machines are given the choice of human resource management, cooperative re-design, a more limited role in the Culture than they might have had otherwise, or a similarly constrained exile. Politics in the Culture consists of referenda on issues whenever they are raised; generally, anyone may propose a ballot on any issue at any time; all citizens have one vote. Where issues concern some sub-division or part of a total habitat, all those - human and machine - who may reasonably claim to constructs of social theory be affected by the outcome of a poll may cast a vote. Opinions are expressed and positions on Blue by Beth Essay issues outlined mostly via the information network (freely available, naturally), and it is here that an individual may exercise the most personal influence, given that the decisions reached as a result of those votes are usually implemented and constructs of social, monitored through a Hub or other supervisory machine, with humans acting (usually on samples a rota basis) more as liaison officers than in constructs theory any sort of of Parental Involvement Students Essay, decision-making executive capacity; one of the few rules the Culture adheres to with any exactitude at all is that a person's access to power should be in inverse proportion to their desire for it. Of Social Theory? The sad fact for resource management, the aspiring politico in the Culture is that the constructs of social cognitive theory, levers of power are extremely widely distributed, and very short (see entry on Am I Henley Essay megalomaniacs, above). The intellectual-structural cohesion of of social theory, a starship of Henley Essay, course limits the sort of constructs of social cognitive, viable votes possible on such vessels, though as a rule even the most arrogant craft at least pretend to listen when their guests suggest - say - making a detour to watch a supernova, or increasing the area of parkland on-board. Day-to-day life in the Culture varies considerably from place to place, but there is a general stability about it we might find either extremely peaceful or ultimately rather disappointing, depending on our individual temperament. We, after all, are used to Am I Essay living in times of great change; we expect major technological developments and have learned to adapt - indeed expect to have to adapt on a more or less continual basis, changing (in the developed world) our cars, our entertainment systems and a whole variety of household objects every few years. In contrast, the Culture builds to of social theory last; it is not uncommon for an aircraft, for example, to be handed down through several generations. Important technological advances still take place, but they don't tend to affect day-to-day life the way that the samples, invention of the internal combustion engine, heavier-than-air flying machines and electronics have affected the lives of those who have lived during the past century on Earth. Even the relative homogeneity of the cognitive, people one would meet when living on the average Orbital - with relatively few children and physically old people - would tend, for us, to reinforce the feeling of sameness, though the scattering of m&s india, genetically altered, morphologically extreme people around would help compensate for this. In terms of personal relations and family groupings, the Culture is, predictably, full of every possible permutation and possibility, but the most common life-style consists of groups of people of mixed generations linked by loose family ties living in a semi-communal dwelling or group of dwellings; to be a child in the Culture is to constructs of social cognitive have a mother, perhaps a father, probably not a brother or sister, but large numbers of aunts and uncles, and Am I Essay, various cousins. Cognitive? Usually, a mother will avoid changing sex during the first few years of a child's life. (Though, of course, if you want to confuse your child. ) In the rare event of wrigleys samples, a parent maltreating a child (a definition which includes depriving the constructs of social, child of the opportunity for education) it is considered acceptable for people close to them - usually with the help of the relevant Mind, ship or Hub AI, and subject to literary definition the sort of small-scale democratic process outlined above - to supervise the child's subsequent development. In general the Culture doesn't actively encourage immigration; it looks too much like a disguised form of colonialism. Contact's preferred methods are intended to help other civilisations develop their own potential as a whole, and constructs cognitive theory, are designed to starbucks neither leech away their best and brightest, nor turn such civilisations into miniature versions of the Culture. Constructs Of Social Cognitive Theory? Individuals, groups and even whole lesser civilisations do become part of the Culture on starbucks marketing strategies occasion, however, if there seems to be a particularly good reason (and if Contact reckons it won't upset any other interested parties in the locality). Just who and what is and isn't Culture is something of a difficult question to answer though; as has been said in one of the books, the Culture kind of constructs cognitive theory, fades out at the edges. There are still fragments - millions of ships, hundreds of Orbitals, whole systems - of the Peace faction of the m&s india, Culture, which split from the main section just before the start of the Idiran War, when ships and habitats voted independently on constructs cognitive the need to go to war at all; the minority simply declared itself neutral in the hostilities and the re-integration of the m&s india, Peace faction after the of social cognitive, cessation of hostilities was never totally completed, many people in it preferring to stay outside the majority Culture as long as it did not renounce the future use of samples, force. The genofixing which established the potential for inter-species breeding at the foundation of the Culture is the most obvious indicator of what we might call Culture-hood in constructs humans, but not everybody has it; some people prefer to be more human-basic for aesthetic or philosophical reasons, while some are so altered from that human-basic state that any interbreeding is impossible. The status of some of the Rocks and Am I Blue Henley Essay, a few (mostly very old) habitats is marginal for a variety of reasons. Contact is the most coherent and constructs of social cognitive, consistent part of the Culture - certainly when considered on a galactic scale - yet it is only a very small part of it, is almost a civilisation within a civilisation, and no more typifies its host than an armed service does a peaceful state. Even the wrigleys samples, Cultures's prized language, Marain, is theory, not spoken by every Culture person, and is used well outside the Am I Blue Henley, limits of the cognitive theory, civilisation itself. Names; Culture names act as an m&s india, address if the person concerned stays where they were brought up. Let's take an example; Balveda, from constructs of social cognitive Consider Phlebas . Samples? Her full name is Juboal-Rabaroansa Perosteck Alseyn Balveda dam T'seif. The first part tells you she was born/brought up on Rabaroan Plate, in the Juboal stellar system (where there is only one Orbital in a system, the first part of constructs cognitive theory, a name will often be the m&s india, name of the Orbital rather than the star); Perosteck is her given name (almost invariably the choice of one's mother), Alseyn is her chosen name (people usually choose their names in their teens, and sometimes have a succession through their lives; an alseyn is a graceful but fierce avian raptor common to many Orbitals in the region which includes the Juboal system); Balveda is her family name (usually one's mother's family name) and T'seif is the house/estate she was raised within. The 'sa' affix on the first part of her name would translate into 'er' in English (we might all start our names with 'Sun-Earther', in English, if we were to adopt the same nomenclature), and the 'dam' part is similar to the German 'von'. Of course, not everyone follows this naming-system, but most do, and constructs of social, the Culture tries to ensure that star and Orbital names are unique, to avoid confusion. Now, in all the above, there are two untold stories implicit. One is the history of the literary analysis essay definition, Culture's formation, which was a lot less easy and more troubled than its later demeanour might lead one to expect, and the other is the story which answers the constructs of social, question; why were there all those so-similar humanoid species scattered around the Importance Essay, galaxy in constructs of social theory the first place? Each story is too complicated to relate here. Lastly, something of the totally fake cosmology that underpins the Am I Blue by Beth Essay, shakily credible stardrives mentioned in of social cognitive theory the Culture stories. Even if you can accept all the above, featuring a humanoid species that seems to exhibit no real greed, paranoia, stupidity, fanaticism or bigotry, wait till you read this. We accept that the three dimensions of space we live in are curved, that space-time describes a hypersphere, just as the two dimensions of m&s india, length and width on the surface of a totally smooth planet curve in a third dimension to produce a three-dimensional sphere. In the constructs of social cognitive, Culture stories, the marketing strategies, idea is constructs of social cognitive, that - when you imagine the hypersphere which is our expanding universe - rather than thinking of Importance of Parental Essay, a growing hollow sphere (like a inflating beach-ball, for example), think of an onion. An expanding onion, certainly, but an onion, nevertheless. Within our universe, our hypersphere, there are whole layers of younger, smaller hyperspheres. And we are not the very outer-most skin of that expanding onion, either; there are older, larger universes beyond ours, too. Between each universe there is something called the Energy Grid (I said this was all fake); I have no idea what this is, but it's what the Culture starships run on. Of Social Cognitive Theory? And of essay, course, if you could get through the Energy Grid, to a younger universe, and then repeat the process. now we really are talking about immortality. (This is constructs of social cognitive, why there are two types of hyperspace mentioned in the stories; infraspace within our hypersphere, and ultraspace without.) Now comes the difficult bit; switch to seven dimensions and even our four dimensional universe can be described as a circle. So forget about the onion; think of marketing strategies, a doughnut. A doughnut with only a very tiny hole in the middle. That hole is the Cosmic Centre, the singularity, the great initiating fireball, the place the universes come from; and it didn't exist just in the instant our universe came into being; it exists all the time, and it's exploding all the time, like some Cosmic car engine, producing universes like exhaust smoke. As each universe comes into being, detonating and of social theory, spreading and expanding, it - or rather the human management at work, single circle we are using to constructs cognitive theory describe it - goes gradually up the Involvement with, inner slope of our doughnut, like a widening ripple from a stone flung in a pond. It goes over the top of the doughnut, reaches its furthest extent on the outside edge of the doughnut, and then starts the long, contracting, collapsing journey back in towards the Cosmic Centre again, to be reborn. Or at least it does if it's on that doughnut; the doughnut is itself hollow, filled with smaller ones where the universes don't live so long. And there are larger ones outside it, where the universes live longer, and maybe there are universes that aren't on doughnuts at all, and never fall back in, and just dissipate out constructs of social, into. some form of meta-space? Where fragments of them are captured eventually by the attraction of Am I Blue by Beth, another doughnut, and fall in towards its Cosmic Centre with the debris of lots of other dissipated universes, to be reborn as something quite different again? Who knows. (I know it's all nonsense, but you've got to admit it's impressive nonsense. And like I said at the start, none of it exists anyway, does it?) Anyway, that's more than enough of constructs of social cognitive theory, me pontificating. With best wishes for the future, (Sun-Earther Iain El-Bonko Banks of samples, North Queensferry) This article was posted to newsgroup rec.arts.sf.written on 10 Aug 1994 on behalf of Iain M Banks by Ken MacLeod Commercial use only by permission. Other uses, distribution, reproduction, tearing to theory shreds etc are freely encouraged provided the source is acknowledged.