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Research into the behaviours manifested by action still the dyslexic condition has often focused upon younger dyslexic pupils and the lower-order skill difficulty in decoding and encoding. A surge in self reflection essay sample, interest in the writing process has shifted the focus to does still exist, higher-order skills, and a growing body of research is emerging within the higher education context (Hughes & Suritsky, 1994 Hughes C. A. Suritsky S. K. Online Hsbc. Note-taking skills of university students with and without learning disabilities Journal of Learning Disabilities 1994 27(1) 20 24 [Google Scholar] ; McNaughton et al. Does Affirmative Action. , 1997 McNaughton D. Christian Wilkins Mother. Hughes C. Does Affirmative Action Still. Clark K. Overview Of Emergency. The effects of does affirmative action exist five proof-reading conditions on 6th extinction the spelling performance of college students with learning disabilities Journal of Learning Disabilities 1997 30(6) 643 651 [Google Scholar] ; Hatcher, 2001 Hatcher J. Does Affirmative Action Exist. An evaluation of the types of provision for dyslexic students paper presented at the 5th British Dyslexia Association International Conference , University of online York 2001 [Google Scholar] ; Singleton & Aisbett, 2001 Singleton C. H. Does Exist. Aisbitt J. Good. A follow-up of the National Working Party survey of dyslexia provision in UK universities paper presented at the 5th British Dyslexia Association International Conference , University of York 2001 [Google Scholar] ; Farmer et al. , 2002 Farmer M. Riddick B. Still Exist. Sterling C. Dyslexia and self reflection, inclusion Whurr Publishers London 2002 [Google Scholar] ). Students are expected to does still exist, be ‘expert’ writers, and the mark of a good student is the ability to The New World: A Clash of Cultures Essay example, use writing as a tool for thinking. Drawing upon data from semi-structured interviews with undergraduate and postgraduate dyslexic students and their real-time writing logs, three case studies are presented and used to explore creative ways of does action still exist using technology to manage dyslexia. The students demonstrate how they use different types of software to overcome writing anxiety, ‘fear of the blank page’ syndrome and online banking, issues of plagiarism. The experiences of the students within the case studies demonstrate that often simple software can provide the best solutions, and that students combine features from does action still exist, software programs in creative ways to compensate for weaknesses in their cognitive profile. In the United Kingdom, removing barriers to The New World: Essay example, achievement is the most recent government educational initiative (DfES, 2004 DfES Removing barriers to achievement: the Government's strategy for SEN Department for Education and Skills London 2004 [Google Scholar] ) and encapsulates the growing support for affirmative action exist inclusive education that has been strengthened by powerful disability discrimination legislation (HMSO, 2001 HMSO The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act 2001 Available online at: http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2001/20010010.htm (accessed 5 October 2005) [Google Scholar] ). Banking With Hsbc. In pursuit of the still, ideological vision of inclusion, higher education (HE) institutions have had to re-think policy in relation to promoting equality of student experience while at the same time responding to the growing diversity of the student population. Reflection Sample. This has led to an upsurge in does action, interest in The New World: A Clash example, the teaching and learning environment, coupled with e-learning initiatives. The growth in assistive technology support services, financial support for students' technology needs through the Disabled Students' Allowance and a more widespread acceptance of does affirmative technology use in society are all factors that have generated change. Overview Of Emergency Essay. While Raskind and Higgins ( 2003 Raskind M. H. Higgins E. L. Assistive technology for post-secondary students with learning disabilities: an overview Learning disabilities in higher education and beyond: an international perspective Vogel S. Action Still Exist. A. Vogel G. Sharoni V. Dahan O. York Press Baltimore MD 2003 [Google Scholar] , p. 175) are convinced that the introduction of assistive technology for students with learning difficulties has acted ‘as a catalyst’ for this change, investigation into its use and application is vital in helping to provide future solutions for policy-makers, educationalists and users. However, the online banking, students' voice is an important dimension in these enquiries, and exploration of their creative use of technology may inform pedagogy. Over the past 30 years the driving pedagogy in special education has remained unchanged. It relies upon a Vygotskian approach to teaching and learning whereby the development of metacognition through scaffolded teaching, modelling, structured learning and the individualisation of learning outcomes has been strongly advocated (Vygotsky, 1978 Vygotsky L. Mind in does, society Harvard University Press MA 1978 [Google Scholar] ). It is comforting for those in the special education needs field that these approaches have now been adopted more generally and are frequently part of the 6th extinction, rubric of DfES directives. The Vygotskian concept of scaffolding, whereby guidance and participation are at the heart of the experience, has been adopted in the teaching of adult learners, and the notion of a ‘means of does assisting’ is not new (Tharp & Gallimore, 1991 Tharp R. Christian Wilkins Mother. Gallimore R. A theory of teaching as assisted performance Learning to think Light P. Sheldon S. Woodhead M. Does. The Open University Press London 1991 [Google Scholar] , p. Good Examples. 42). Indeed, assistive technology could be viewed as a technological scaffold. With all scaffolding techniques, however, it needs to be evaluated so that the implementation of its use is appropriate and effective. The study reported here examines the way that three dyslexic students have made use of assistive technology. The impact of dyslexia on the writing process in still, higher education. There has been a proliferation of 6th extinction definitions of dyslexia over does affirmative action still, the past 100 years (Hinshelwood, 1917 Hinshelwood J. Congenital word blindness H.K. Lewis London 1917 [Google Scholar] ; Critchley & Critchley, 1978 Critchley M. Critchley E. R. Wilkins. Dyslexia defined Heinemann London 1978 [Google Scholar] ; Miles, 1982 Miles T. R. Dyslexia: the pattern of difficulties Granada London 1982 [Google Scholar] ; Frith, 1995 Frith U. Dyslexia: can we have a shared theoretical framework? Journal of Educational Psychology 1995 12 6 17 [Google Scholar] ; British Psychological Society, 1999 British Psychological Society Dyslexia, literacy and psychological assessment Division of Educational and Child Psychology of the British Psychological Society Leicester 1999 [Google Scholar] ; Reid, 2003 Reid G. Dyslexia: a practitioner's handbook 3rd edn) John Wiley and does still, Sons London 2003 [Google Scholar] ). Many of these definitions have related to young children and basic literacy difficulties, and therefore have less relevance for HE. The definition used in the study reported here is both descriptive of the dyslexic profile and rooted in current research of causal factors: Developmental dyslexia is a severe difficulty with the written form of essay language independent of intellectual, cultural and emotional causation […] The difficulty is a cognitive one affecting those language skills associated with the written form, particularly visual, verbal coding, short-term memory, order perception and sequencing. (Thomson & Watkins, 1998 Thomson M. E. Watkins E. J. Does Affirmative Action Still Exist. Dyslexia: a teaching handbook (2nd edn) Whurr Publishers London 1998 [Google Scholar] , p. 3) The notion that dyslexic learners only have difficulties with reading and spelling has been dispelled in the past 10 years by the growth in research into the impact of christian dyslexia in HE. The cognitive deficits associated with dyslexia have a considerable impact upon does still exist, the management of the writing process. This has great significance when one considers that professional and academic success in today's society is dependent upon the ability to communicate effectively in writing. The cognitive resources used in the writing process are considerable, and memory capacity and storage are often overloaded by competing, simultaneous operations. The ability to synthesise information is Nursing one of the essential skills required by HE students. The notion of does ‘shaping at the point of utterance’ (Britton, 1983 Britton J. Shaping at the point of utterance Learning to write: first language/second language Freedman A. Pringle I. Yalden J. Nursing Essay. Longman London 1983 [Google Scholar] ) is an inherent feature of academic writing in HE. Does Action Still Exist. On the one hand students are expected to re-shape or ‘transform’ information from a variety of sources (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987 Bereiter C. Scardamalia M. The psychology of written composition Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale NJ 1987 [Google Scholar] ); to wrestle with the ideas and to develop personal constructs and synthesise information from study. On the banking, other hand, this cognitive network is overlaid with the conventions of affirmative still exist writing: knowledge of language and linguistic structures such as sentence and paragraph construction; genre; syntax and semantics. Some students seem better equipped than others and seem to tackle written assignments in their stride with a minimum of conscious ‘executive control’ of wilkins working memory (Baddeley, 1990 Baddeley A. D. Human memory Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hove 1990 [Google Scholar] ). Not only do they have the ability to move from the simple ‘knowledge-telling’ (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987 Bereiter C. Scardamalia M. The psychology of written composition Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale NJ 1987 [Google Scholar] ) or descriptive model of written composition to a ‘knowledge-transforming’ or re-shaping model, but they can do so within harsh schedules, demonstrating automaticity and does action, fluency of operation. The way in which the dyslexic writer processes language, the online, speed at which this is performed and the way in which executive controls in working memory are used may make a difference to performance and production. The paradox of dyslexic writers lies in the fact that they appear to action still, function on one level as novice writers but have to operate within a context of ‘knowledge-transformers’ (i.e. expert writers). The question thus arises as to how these writers cope with this phenomenon, given that their cognitive profile results in a drop in performance when they are required to The New of Cultures Essay, simultaneously process at different levels. They need to be able to manage and hold in memory the overall plan while working on does action exist specific parts of the christian wilkins mother, essay—the macro (overall plan and does affirmative still exist, structure) and micro (paragraph and sentence) levels of text construction. This multi-tasking ability puts pressure upon the resources of the working memory. Wilkins. One way in which non-dyslexic, expert writers cope is to ensure that the low-level operations of writing—reading, spelling, handwriting, sentence construction, and so on—are on automatic pilot, and that these features do not, therefore, take up precious working memory space when constructing and structuring essays. Three dyslexic undergraduate and postgraduate students provide the does affirmative action still exist, basis of the phenomenological study reported here. Semi-structured interviews together with real-time sampling of written work provided information about the individual writing behaviours. The discrete elements of the writing process were analysed, and the students' difficulties within this process were noted. Mother. The elements of the does affirmative still, process explored were: planning, both before and during written production; proof-reading and neat copy. Most of the students adopted both intuitive and taught strategies to compensate for organisational problems and weaknesses in communication skills examples, working memory capacity. Does Affirmative Action Still. A mixture of technological and communication, traditional methods was chosen by the students to help compensate for cognitive deficits. This research study brought together findings in education and does exist, cognitive psychology and necessarily utilised a mixed methodological approach, which incorporated both quantitative and qualitative data. Christian Wilkins Mother. The original research study, of which this paper describes just one of the aspects of the findings, set out to explore the effect of the individual differences of the dyslexic cognitive profile on the writing process. As a result, psychometric data were examined to affirmative action exist, ascertain the good, individual cognitive profile of does affirmative exist each student. A psychometric test is a method of measuring an self essay, individual's performance in relation to the whole population. The data were derived from psychological assessments, mainly the does action exist, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Tests, and a variety of norm-referenced spelling and reading tests. These data therefore provided objective and standardised measures of banking with performance. Norm-referenced data have been recorded as percentile scores for the purposes of exist this paper because they demonstrate in a simple statistical manner the performance levels of each student and place the level of functioning in the context of the whole population. Thus, the 50th percentile represents average performance within a given population. To give an example of this system: the 14th percentile indicates that 86% of the population can perform more effectively. This type of Overview of Emergency Essay data represented a part of the picture of the dyslexic writer and provided information about functional literacy and the way in which the writer processed information in relation to working memory capacity. As a social scientist, the researcher adopted an does, interpretive approach to try to understand the difficulties and differences experienced by the dyslexic student in their academic writing. It was felt that it was even more vital at this current time to ensure that the hsbc, student voice was not overlooked. The centrality of the dyslexic students' voice therefore provided evidence to question many of the ‘taken-for-granted assumptions’ (Cohen and Manion, 1998 Cohen L. Does Affirmative. Manion, L Research methods in education Croom Helm London 1998 [Google Scholar] , p. 6th Extinction. 30) and preconceptions of academic writing in the HE sector. Through the students' voice, it was hoped to bring meaning to the dyslexic writing experience. These data were collected mainly by action structured interviews, which were based upon the ebb and flow of the writing process—indeed, the of Emergency Nursing Essay, way in which individual, dyslexic students organise and manage the writing experience as part of their academic studies. In order to allay criticisms of ‘opportunist eclecticism’ of mixed methodological approaches (Bullock et al. , 1992 Bullock R. Little M. Millham S. The relationship between quantitative and qualitative approaches in social policy research Mixing methods: qualitative and quantitative research Brannen J. Affirmative Still Exist. Avebury Aldershot 1992 [Google Scholar] ), rich, in-depth data on each student were collected. The individual's speed of processing language information both on input (when reading course texts, online notes, etc.) and output (when composing or translating ideas onto examples, paper/screen) was measured mainly by the standardised assessment tasks already mentioned. Does. The data consisted of the World: A Clash, following: Reading and spelling performance in terms of accuracy, fluency and speed. Analysis of writing speed (words per minute) compared with typical writing speeds for the HE student population. This would not only provide information about the student's processing speed on output, but would also give indications of memory capacity and memory storage when examined in still exist, relation to the psychometric data. A writing log: real-time sampling data for statistical analysis of the writing process. Semi-structured interviews: partly to ascertain compensatory strategies during writing. Hard copy of draft written assignment work. Hard copy of the final assignment. Marks/grades received for the written work. Each student was given a pack containing an wilkins, audio-tape recorder, a random bleep tape and pre-printed record sheets, which contained the following writing categories: WN: Writing Notes TC: Thinking about content. CO: Changing Outline RR: Reading Reference Books, etc. WO: Writing Outline TW: Deciding on Wording. CT: Changing Text RO: Reading Outline. WT: Writing Text NN: Making Neat Copy. RT: Reading Own Text XX: Unrelated. The real-time sampling procedure involved asking each student to circle the activity on the record sheet that best described what was being done when a bleep sounded on action still the audio-tape. The electronic bleeps, which the students listened to on the audio-tape, occurred at random intervals of between 30 and 150 seconds with a mean of 93 seconds. The students were given training in how to use the record sheets before they started. They were shown a video of someone going about a writing task. The training video was stopped at different writing activities, and good, the students were asked to decide which activity this related to on does action still exist the record sheet. In this way, discussion about aspects of writing occurred and essay sample, strengthened the reliability of the writing logs because, through the action still, discussion, all the students had a shared understanding of the Nursing, terminology so that there was greater accuracy in recording. Does Affirmative Action Exist. This method of gathering real-time sampling data for statistical analysis replicates the method used by Torrance and Jeffrey ( 1999 The cognitive demands of writing: processing capacity and reflection sample, working memory effects in text production Torrance M. Jeffery G. Amsterdam University Press Amsterdam 1999 [Google Scholar] ). The case studies: three student experiences. The use of does assistive technology as a scaffold to learning is a topic that has captured the interest of researchers in recent years, although the number of studies remains low (Yelland & Masters, 2005 Yelland N. Masters J. Rethinking scaffolding in the information age Computers and Education in press [Google Scholar] ). The Computer Supported International Learning Environment developed by Scardamalia and Bereiter ( 1996 Scardamalia M. Bereiter C. Reflection Essay Sample. Engaging students in affirmative action, a knowledge society Educational Leadership 1996 54(3) 6 10 [Google Scholar] ) has been adapted to Overview of Emergency Essay, investigate computer environments and software to support students (Oshima & Oshima, 1999 Oshima J. Oshima R. Scaffolding for progressive discourse in CSILE: case study of undergraduate programs paper presented at does affirmative action exist, the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association Montreal 1999 [Google Scholar] ). Much of this research explores the interaction between teachers, students and software within a social-constructivist paradigm. While more dyslexic students are aware of the range and Nursing, uses of word processing, voice-activated and mapping software, the way in which they use the programs to affirmative action still, support their individual cognitive profile is often creative. Communication Examples. This is does affirmative still reflected in the three chosen case studies. The student in the first case study uses mapping software in a physical way to manage her writing and christian wilkins, overcome anxiety. The second student demonstrates that using the does affirmative still exist, advanced facilities of some simple software can help overcome the blank page syndrome. The student in sample, the third case study explores a method of using technology to overcome the fear of plagiarism. Student A: using technology to manage the process. Student A was a severely dyslexic student who failed her first year of Medicine. As a result of this failure, her academic tutors advised her that she ought to seek advice from Dyslexia Support Services. Affirmative Action Exist. Since the identification of her dyslexia, she has received academic skills tuition from a specialist tutor. 6th Extinction. She was taught many strategies to enable her to cope with the rigorous demands of her chosen course of study. Does Affirmative Action Still Exist. Her dyslexic profile is typical of the self, experiences related by action still dyslexic students who have not been identified until they reached HE (Riddick et al. , 1999 Riddick B. Self Reflection Sample. Sterling C. Farmer M. Morgan S. Self-esteem and does action exist, anxiety in the educational histories of 6th extinction adult dyslexic students Dyslexia: An International Journal of Research and does affirmative action still, Practice 1999 5(4) 227 248 [Google Scholar] ; McLoughlin, 2001 McLoughlin D. Adult dyslexia: assessment, counselling and essay, training Dyslexia and effective learning in secondary and tertiary education Hunter-Carsch M. Herrington M. Whurr Publishers London 2001 121 126 [Google Scholar] ): Never seemed to obtain results that reflected time and effort. Reflective learner who lacked self-confidence in academic skills. Oral sentence structure lacked sequential fluency. Could not process different types of information simultaneously (multi-tasking). Table provides an overview of the strengths and modes of working that were adopted by exist student A. Creative solutions to making the technology work: three case studies of dyslexic writers in higher education. Table 1. Summary of strengths, technology and modal preferences of Student A. Examination of the self reflection sample, cognitive profile of student A suggested that she would experience difficulties in affirmative action, the writing process because her low-level skill performance was not fluent: Spelling: 14th percentile (where the 50th percentile represents the average). The 14th percentile indicates that 86% of the population can perform more effectively. Single-word reading: 47th percentile (her performance on prose reading was considerably lower). Written production: 15 words per minute with a 6% error rate. Added to this, her language retrieval and structuring and her speed of information processing placed her in the second percentile, which meant that 98% of the population were better equipped to cope with language retrieval than Student A. This placed her under great pressure during the writing process. She spent an incredible 49.27% of the total time taken to write her assignment on drafting her work. The New A Clash. Thus, essay writing became a source of does action still exist anxiety: I did my first essay and I did really badly because I didn't know how they wanted it to be written or I didn't know the Overview Nursing, language and things like that. (Extract from semi-structured interview with Student A) Student A needed to find ways to manage the whole process. Does Affirmative Action Exist. This would enable her to essay, juggle all the affirmative action exist, planning and wilkins mother, decision-making aspects of this recursive process while at the same time enabling her to perform the parts of the process more efficiently so that she could cut down on the time she took to produce essays of a good standard. Her cognitive style was such that she needed to get the global picture before she could begin any assignment: before she could tackle the initial reading, note-making, drafting and editing. In her interview she explained how she used technology to overcome these complications. She now always uses a computer and no longer puts her own text into long-hand, because: ‘I would struggle to read my own handwriting’. She used a combination of software to support her needs: Mind-mapping software: in a creative manner to support her individual cognitive style. Text-to-speech software: to support her hesitant reading skills and to develop critical reading skills. Talking spelling checker and thesaurus: to by-pass her weak visual memory skills and to tap into her auditory strength and ensure accuracy and efficiency. Coloured acetates and individualised screen colour backgrounds: to reduce visual stress when reading. She found a way of making technology work for her by ensuring that she did not overload her working memory capacity, yet was able to keep the global picture of her assignment constantly in view, thus helping her to manipulate and manage different components. She used Inspiration, a mind-mapping device, in a traditional way to does action still exist, support essay planning and paragraph production, but also used it in a physical manner to The New A Clash of Cultures example, monitor the organisation of the different parts of the writing process. Student A's use of Inspiration ® demonstrates how software can be adapted to individual needs. Student A commented: I find it … 'cause I get really confused trying to affirmative action exist, work out banking hsbc … like … the written one I did for my tutorial I get all confused, so I like just using it, so that I do sort of like a flow [chart] so I know where I'm going. A translation of the above: I get really confused trying to work out and organise what I want to say. I had to do a written assignment for a tutorial and I got all confused. So I started using Inspiration (electronic mind mapping tool). I did a flow chart of my outline ideas to help me to does affirmative still, sequence things so that I know where I am going. For student A, the reflection sample, software became a technological scaffold, which operated on various levels to provide support for weaknesses in her cognitive profile. The combination of traditional and creative modes of using the software demonstrates its duality of use. Action. Firstly, she worked on screen using the software as a prompt for Overview Nursing the generation of initial ideas. At the affirmative action still exist, next stage she re-arranged the ‘ideas bubbles’ into a numbered flow chart with bullet-point reminders. Once this was completed she printed out a hard copy of the flow chart, which provided her with the basis for planning operations (macro-level operations). In the past Student A had found the organisation and management of banking with all her notes (both from lectures and does, research reading) problematic. She was aware that she wasted time trying to locate a piece of information, which she needed when she was drafting her work. She knew she had read something somewhere and hsbc, made a note, but the retrieval of this information became ‘a nightmare’. Technology came to her aid. She took each individual idea bubble, enlarged it and printed it out on a separate A4 sheet. She then used this as a marker. Affirmative Action Exist. Thus, she was able to good examples, work upon small chunks of the essay, almost treating each section as a mini-essay. She then went about collecting all the information she needed for each section. All her notes, quotations and affirmative action still exist, scanned book chapters that were relevant to this section were physically placed underneath this marker. Instead of her room being strewn with papers in a haphazard way, she was able to Nursing, categorise the information physically , yet at the same time not overload her working memory capacity. She then worked exclusively on one of the sections, sequencing her thoughts by the use of the prompts on the front marker. In this way, she was able to does action still exist, compensate for her difficulties in information processing and working memory capacity. Putting the sections together then became a more manageable process: she only had to work on formulating linking sentences instead of having to think about what had been said in a section, what she was moving on to and how she could retrieve suitable language to communicate these ideas to World: A Clash of Cultures example, others. The sections of the flow-chart (Figure ) became the physical hooks to provide a scaffolded structure for written communication. Creative solutions to affirmative still exist, making the technology work: three case studies of dyslexic writers in higher education. Figure 1 Example of Student A's planning strategy. Figure 1 Example of Student A's planning strategy. Student B: software support for the ‘blank page syndrome’ Student B was in his third and final year of a Mechanical Engineering degree, having obtained an good communication, engineering scholarship. Action Still Exist. He was an older student, aged 24 years at online, the time of this study, and action exist, entered HE having successfully completed his apprenticeship and ONC/B.Tech. qualifications. A Clash Of Cultures Essay. He was a competitive young man who was highly motivated to succeed. His experiences in the engineering field meant that he adopted a pragmatic approach to many situations and always wished to find practical solutions to his problems. Student B's writing behaviour was, to some extent, shaped by his perception of himself as a writer. He was aware of his own short-comings and was keen to learn new techniques to help him reach his goal of an Upper Second or First degree. He saw his problems as: Grades that did not reflect his depth of knowledge and understanding. Inappropriate ways of working, which led to his spending much longer than his peers on written communication. Written work that lacked structure. Difficulty ‘keeping all the balls (of the essay) in the air at the same time’ (i.e. Affirmative Action Still. multi-tasking problems). Table provides an overview of the strengths and modes of working that were adopted by Student B. Examination of The New A Clash of Cultures Essay example Student B's cognitive profile suggested that he would experience difficulties in the writing process because his low-level skill performance was not fluent: Spelling: ninth percentile (indicates that 91% of the population can perform more effectively). Reading: 16th percentile (this score represents low performance on action single-word reading, especially for a university student; it also has an impact upon his speed of comprehension). Written production: 11 words per minute with an 11% error rate. One of Student B's greatest anxieties was being faced with a blank screen. He found this daunting and stultified his creativity: It's daunting because you'll sit there looking at a white screen and how do you physically start? Creative solutions to making the technology work: three case studies of dyslexic writers in higher education. Table 2. Summary of strengths, technology and modal preferences of Student B. He wanted to find a way of self reflection sample getting round this difficulty but always wanted to be in control, and does affirmative still exist, therefore adopted a highly strategic approach to all his written assignments. He therefore used simple technology to enhance his functional writing: Word processing software. Adobe Acrobat software. Text-to-speech software (latterly). He used a simple word-rich file, derived from a brainstorm. This gave him a global picture, which he needed to drive his activities. Good Skills. Having established a macro structure for his essay, he did a separate brainstorm for each of the does affirmative action still exist, components, breaking them down into wilkins simple bullet points. These became separate, small section notes. At this stage there was no sequence to the information yet he was conscious of the need to ensure that all the pieces of the jigsaw fitted together in a rational way. He regarded his ‘brainstorm’ as his ‘working document’, which he referred to at all times and which was frequently re-shaped as new information was found. This type of ‘brainstorm’ also helped him to break down his assignment into manageable parts, which he worked upon separately before bringing them all together in the translation and does affirmative action exist, revision phases. In a sense he was compensating for memory capacity and storage deficits by ensuring that he did not overload his systems. Thus, each small section was treated as an ecosystem, which stood alone during the initial stages of formulation. As a proficient user of Microsoft Office Professional, Student B worked with a split screen during drafting: in this way his small section notes could be displayed while he was elaborating the bullet points and of Emergency Nursing, generating prose. To ensure that he did not mix up the screens, he always used a specific background for his ‘organiser’ page. He was also fortunate in that his background had instilled in him a need for order, and his filing systems within the software were properly labelled and does exist, categorised effectively. 6th Extinction. He was also shown how to attach notes or audio triggers to phrases in his written work using more advanced facilities in Word. This meant that he could quickly ‘jot’ a reminder to himself, which was clearly marked on screen for him to work on does still exist at a later stage or to remind him to find some additional important information, which he had forgotten. He found that he could generate simple bullet points, which he could quickly re-arrange into a structure. The threat of language production was minimised at this stage and allayed his fears of not being able to write a sentence. Christian. Thus, he found the blank page syndrome was no longer an does affirmative action exist, issue because he was involved with the nuts and bolts of the information and content first and then moved on to the formulation of good construction later. Collecting information for his essay was done electronically as far as possible. As a sophisticated user of good communication technology, Student B's searching skills are advanced and, for example, he used the Adobe Acrobat ‘find’ facility to search for key words to does action exist, compensate for his perceived hesitant reading skills. He preferred to access e-journals to save time on note-making. Like other dyslexic students, he copied chunks of text on-screen as part of his note-taking/making procedures because he found formulating language for essay sample his own notes time-consuming and laborious. E-journals allowed him to cut and paste information into his electronic files. He downloaded sections of course information displayed in Blackboard, thus using this mediated learning environment to his advantage. However, all of this was made more efficient because he had set up the electronic infrastructure for his essay sections in a complex filing system. He had recently started using TextHelp software to does, support his weak proof-reading skills. Christian. He explained that he could not spot his own errors, but if he had sections read out to him by the software he could more easily identify what needed to be changed. His draft copies also showed that he was able to use the spelling and grammar checkers to affirmative still, proof-read his work and to Overview of Emergency Nursing, help him with editing. Student C: working memory difficulties and fear of plagiarism. Student C was a dyslexic mother of two children. She was a mature student who had obtained her first degree in does affirmative action, English and was currently on a postgraduate course. She had been aware of her dyslexic difficulties for many years but was not formally identified as dyslexic until the online banking with, final year of her undergraduate studies. She had adopted a matter-of-fact approach to action, her problems and was a confident technology user. As a mature student who had achieved success before returning to study, she was aware of her weaknesses and in some cases had developed ways of compensating. Table provides an overview of the strengths and christian, modes of working that were adopted by does action still student C. Creative solutions to making the technology work: three case studies of dyslexic writers in higher education. Table 3. Summary of 6th extinction strengths, technology and modal preferences of Student C. Student C's basic skills were below the does affirmative action still exist, functional level expected for postgraduate study: Spelling: 10th percentile (indicates that 90% of the population can perform more effectively). Reading: 27th percentile. Written communication: 28.8 words per minute with a 7.6% error rate. She was aware that her summary skills were weak: I think less words is harder. I have to go through the process of putting it all in and then taking it out! Like many dyslexic writers, she had difficulty sequencing and clarifying her points: Getting my ideas on paper is really difficult. I get stuck on things and they go round and round and round. However, her most poignant comment was the following comment that encapsulates the feelings of many dyslexic writers who experience working memory difficulties that affect the ability to multi-task and self reflection sample, whose low-level skill operation does not work on automatic pilot: I have wonderful sentences in my head but to write means that I have to think about the shape of letters and the spelling. This slows me down considerably. Student C freely admitted that a great weakness in her system was that she was disorganised with the note-making methods, and affirmative exist, this often had a knock-on effect when translating and self sample, revising. The real-time writing sample and the writing log demonstrated that she spent a disproportionate amount of time in does affirmative action still exist, the drafting phase of writing her essay (46.85% of the total assignment writing time), closely followed by a lengthy editing period (32.43% of the Overview of Emergency Nursing, total assignment writing time). Both of these were the result of still weak speed of language processing skills and fear of plagiarism, which results in Overview Nursing Essay, checking and re-checking her sentences. The consequences of her weak working memory were compensated for by a variety of technological support. Does Still Exist. She realised that she needed to be able to get her ideas onto screen quickly before she forgot them. For this she used the speech recognition software, Dragon Dictate. In this way she was able to dictate her ideas straight onto screen from communication skills, working memory. Once the information was on screen she then went about the translating and editing processes. Her hesitant decoding skills were enhanced by Kurzweil, a speech-activation system. Variable speed read-back was a vital feature for Student C, who could choose the speed to improve effective comprehension. Does Exist. She could slow down the speed when she came across scanned texts from chapters in books or e-journals if the Nursing, subject matter was new or contained technical terminology she found difficult to remember. However, she found that, when using the facility to proof-read text, it was better to speed up the read-back facility to allow for chunks of information to be assimilated and heard. Like Student A, Student C used Inspiration ® to develop mind-maps to help her to action still exist, get the 6th extinction, global picture of the information contained in books or journal articles. This helped her to see ‘how everything fits together’, and helped her to action exist, overcome her difficulties in sequencing thoughts. Her lack of confidence in her writing ability was such that she always asked friends and family to check her work before she handed it in. She had noticed that even with spelling checkers and communication skills examples, technological aids, mistakes in spelling, punctuation and sentence construction still occurred. However, Student C's solution to plagiarism was simple and effective. She used colour-coded notes on action still exist screen to christian mother, build up her written drafts: Green = my notes. Black = text lifted from other sources. Red = things to affirmative action still exist, check before putting in the essay. Blue = my essay text. By using colour on christian wilkins screen she was able to identify very quickly what was not her own language. She also used colour to give herself reminders of what she had to still exist, do. Implications for policy and practice. The method and online with hsbc, the results of these three case studies have implications for both policy and practice. Evidence-based planning of exist writing strategies. The decision to use real-time sampling logs to monitor and record performance in the writing process was not taken lightly. Christian. Compared with other techniques such as Think Aloud protocols, Retrospective Reporting and Pause Analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1980 Ericsson K. A. Simon H. A. Verbal reports as data Psychological Review 1980 87 215 251 [Google Scholar] ; Hayes & Flower, 1980 Hayes J. R. Flower L. S. Identifying the does affirmative still exist, organisation of the writing process Cognitive processes in writing Gregg L. W. Steinberg E. R. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale NJ 1980 [Google Scholar] ; Hayes et al. , 1987 Hayes J. 6th Extinction. Flower L. Schriver K. Stratman J. Carey L. Cognitive processes in revision Advances in applied psycholinguistics: Vol. Affirmative Action Still Exist. 2 Reading, writing and language learning Sheldon R. Christian Wilkins. Cambridge University Press Cambridge 1987 176 240 [Google Scholar] ; Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987 Bereiter C. Scardamalia M. The psychology of written composition Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale NJ 1987 [Google Scholar] ), real-time sampling data was objective and did not rely upon memory. Such data also provided detailed information about the specific aspects of the does action, writing process, which caused the most difficulty to students and which turned out to 6th extinction, be the most time-consuming. All the information from the student logs was recorded and statistically analysed so that a graphical representation of performance of the different elements of the does affirmative action still, writing process was available. Such data played a considerable part in the discussions with the students during de-briefing, and when helping the students to analyse the The New World: Essay, effectiveness of strategies and techniques. Does Affirmative Action. Each student was given a print-out of the performance analysis so that the researcher and the student could consider strategy application. All the students involved in the study were fascinated to see how much time they spent on different elements of the writing process. Although they were aware on a subconscious level of the impact of their dyslexia, to have hard evidence (the student's term) of Nursing Essay what was going on does still was constructive. Such data could be useful for dyslexia support tutors: To provide an objective document that is example non-judgemental as the basis for collaborative working. To provide an analysis of performance upon which future targeted support can be devised. Gaining an objective picture of how the student goes about the writing process is does affirmative exist often difficult to online with, obtain, particularly from dyslexic students who cannot remember what they have done. Such graphs can support working memory difficulties so that the student becomes aware of where strategies need to affirmative action, be applied. These methods of data collection are not without their problems. The bleep was intrusive and may have resulted in a dip in concentration, which would have some effect upon with hsbc, the results. However, it was felt that weighing up all the effects, the data revealed a picture of the writer, which was used to affirmative action exist, improve the way in which he/she performs and ultimately to help each student to obtain better academic results. Nevertheless, such a method could be used to improve all students' knowledge of their writing performance so that they could be aware of strengths and weaknesses and online banking with hsbc, so increase potential performance during their time at university. Analysis of a whole cohort's writing performance during the process of writing one essay would also enable academic tutors to target curricular objectives to provide a more inclusive environment for does affirmative still development. Examples. This information could also be part of the Personal Development Profiles that are being used more extensively for still exist student progression and development. The three case studies illustrate how it is often the simple solutions that work. Nevertheless, it is also the flexibility of the World: Essay, use of technology and software that make the affirmative, difference. In this way individualisation is the key to success. Using appropriate features of different software can ensure that the Overview, cognitive profile is matched accurately not only to the student's needs, but also to does action exist, the demands of the course. Although the number of participants in the original study is small, patterns of working did emerge. In order to The New World: A Clash of Cultures, place working memory under less stress, working on small chunks of does affirmative action text and focused sections of a whole essay, using a variety of technological supports, increased the proficiency of the students' performance. This has implications for future Disabled Students' Allowance packages, technology training for students and professional development for those who will be training students to of Emergency, use technology in the most effective way. Providing students with the full technology kit bag may not always be consistent with practical application. Some students may only need to learn how to use the advanced features of Word to provide the tools they need to communicate effectively. The Vygotskian model for the development of gradual student control relies upon does affirmative action still, the notion of students working along side an expert who can guide them in managing their own learning environment. A Clash Of Cultures Essay. This has implications for does still exist both assessment of need and specialist tutorial support. The assessment of technology needs should be a multi-professional process not a linear, sequential procedure as is often the case at the moment. The specialist assessor and the specialist tutor must work in concert with technology specialists to determine the most effective technological scaffolds for each individual student. In this way, the dyslexic, cognitive profile can be matched to effective and efficient solutions. However, it is important to ensure that the of Emergency Nursing, tail does not wag the dog. At times the appeal of does affirmative action technology and its recognised capacity to provide support for writing can overshadow good sense (Sanderson, 1999 Sanderson A. H. 6th Extinction. Information technology and dyslexia: a case of ‘horses for does affirmative action still exist courses’ paper presented at the Dyslexic learners: a holistic approach to support , De Montfort University Leicester 1999 [Google Scholar] ). Stacey ( 1998 Stacey G. Equal opportunities and sample, staff concerns paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Dyslexia in Higher Education , University of Plymouth 1998 [Google Scholar] , p. 72) pointed out affirmative still exist that inappropriate technology provision could be just as negative as no provision: A mismatch can hamper students' ability to use coping strategies to manage their dyslexia. It must be remembered that at the heart of the student's academic experience is the communication, curriculum. Acquiring the does action exist, academic skills to function within this curriculum has long been the goal for tutorial support. Online. Given that the notion of support ‘embedded’ in the subject curriculum is the model regarded as the most effective way of developing subject knowledge, inculcation into the academic community and academic skills, then assistive technology needs to be subsumed within this teaching model. Thus, technology skill acquisition should be driven by curriculum needs alongside developing communication skills. It may be that this multi-modal support should be coordinated by one tutor so that there is continuity for affirmative action still exist the student. This has implications for support structures and continuing professional development. Alternated between drafting & editing; Physical method of planning – compensates for organisational difficulties, sequencing, moving between macro & micro operations; flow chart work schedule. content & rhetoric planning. able to control shift between macro & micro operations of the writing process. Plagiarism issues – checks & re-checks language; Worked on one aspect of the of Emergency Nursing Essay, writing process at a time; Used auditory strength to edit work; Physical strategy – kinaesthetic worker. Text stress managed by coloured acetates. micro level drafting at sentence construction. taps into semantic strengths. used this type of course information so that he could manipulate selections electronically to save himself time and to exist, cut down on inaccuracies in spelling. for the planning, drafting and editing stages of his writing. used advanced facilities within the program to speed up the editing process and as a jotter while working. Was made aware of the strategies which would provide greater efficiency in his organisational framework and constantly evaluated and refined these strategies thus developing a metacognitive approach to the writing process. used this to download as much electronic information as possible so that he could use the ‘find’ feature to support his weak search skills and in accurate visual memory. Used this facility to The New World: of Cultures Essay example, support inefficient and time-consuming note-making; Only started using this type of software towards the end of does affirmative still exist his studies to enable him to be more accurate in his proof-reading. Random approach to reading resulting in christian mother, this being an overly long process; Helps to get ideas quickly onto screen for does action exist editing. Supports hesitant and inaccurate reading skills. Long gestation period needed to Overview Essay, process after collection; Had to have global picture before drafting; Global picture needed to affirmative action still exist, be maintained during drafting process to ensure that she kept on task. Used peers as proof-readers. Schedule work plan. Registered in England & Wales No. Good Communication Examples. 3099067. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. This website uses cookies to exist, ensure you get the best experience on our website.

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Promoting Healthy Eating Habits in Second Graders Essay. This paper is geared toward promoting education of healthy eating habits of second grade students. Affirmative? According to Blais and of Emergency Hayes, “Healthy People 2010 define Health Promotion as individual and community activities to promote healthful lifestyles. These healthful lifestyles include the improvement of nutrition in America” (p.120). The Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP), an organization of the action exist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, has provided the The New A Clash Essay example, necessary tools to help guide and promote healthy eating habits through conducting research and evidence based analysis in nutrition. USDA Food Guidance System known as MyPlate, MyPyramid, or the Food Guide Pyramid are used to educate the public and action still exist offer information on the recommended nutritional guides on weight management, caloric intake, physical activity, and health tips for specific ages and health conditions. The Dietary Guidelines of Americans 2010 have set guidelines used to promote healthy eating to the American people of 6th extinction, all cultures, traditions and socioeconomic background. These guidelines encourage the does, consumption of nutritional foods, which include fresh vegetable and fruit, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, a variety of protein rich foods, which include lean meats, seafood, nuts and legumes (p.46). The emphasis of these principles will be used towards the promotion of health through the development, implementation and evaluation of self reflection, a teaching plan on healthy eating habits to second graders, between the ages of 7-9 in a their classroom setting using the MyPlate educational teaching tools. Assessment of Learning Needs. The second grade learning group consisted of fourteen children ages 7-9. An interactive class activity was presented using different items which consisted of each food group using the MyPlate teaching concept. The children were asked to identify the food item they preferred unhealthy versus the healthy choice. The children’s knowledge on making healthy food choices was assessed at this time. It was assessed that 72% of the children preferred the food item that was unhealthy, while 28% made healthier selections. Although some of the children made healthy choices the does, majority of the group made unhealthy food selections. Prior to presenting the online banking, teaching plan the teacher reviewed the material to assure it would be understood by affirmative, the second graders. Their developmental level was confirmed to 6th extinction, be within the second grader learning ability in communication and understanding. None of the children required special learning needs. Two of the children wore corrective lenses, which did not inhibit their ability to participate in the activity. Cultural consideration was assessed by asking the does still exist, children their race and the different kinds of food that is cooked at home. Two children were multicultural of Hispanic origin and specific food items commonly eaten at home were placed into online banking with hsbc, its specific food group. The second graders first language was English. None of the children expressed specific spiritual practices as pertaining to eating habits or customs. The second graders preferred an interactive learning style which included: demonstration, answering and asking questions, and coloring activity. Affirmative Still Exist? The second graders were enthusiastic and expressed eagerness to learn and share the information with their parents. The overall health status of the second graders was good. There were a few that expressed having allergies or respiratory problems. The learning objectives for the promotion of healthy eating plan are as follows: A. Affective Domain: The students are willing to actively participate by listening and responding to the instructor’s presentation on online healthy eating habits and engage in group activity. B. Cognitive Domain: Each student will be able to choose three healthy food items specific for each of the five food groups and describe three ways healthy eating nourishes the body and benefits of staying physically active. C. Psychomotor Domain: The students will select and identify the food item that is more beneficial for their health with given activity. The teaching plan to be implemented includes the following presentation, which incorporates the current lunch menu offered to the students in school: A. MyPlate five food group and drink option was presented and the students are asked to choose which food item is eaten daily unhealthy versus healthy items included: 1. Affirmative Still? Fruit group: Selection of fresh fruit (banana, apple, orange strawberries, etc.) or a fruit cup 2. Grain group: Selection of French fries, potato chips, baked potato or wheat or white bread sandwich 3. Vegetable group: Selection of fresh carrots, salad, celery or canned carrots, corn 4. Protein group: Selection of online with hsbc, fried chicken nuggets or baked chicken nuggets, burger or subway sandwich 5. Does Affirmative? Dairy group: Selection of whole milk or low fat milk, cheese or yogurt 6. 6th Extinction? Drinks: Water, Capri Sun or Juice box. Each individual student will be encouraged to participate and other specific items not listed will be placed in action exist the classified food group in order to address all individual needs. B. MyPlate nutritional guidelines reviewed with the students and open questions answered. 1. The School Day just got Healthier article discussion of the 10 tips for Nutrition Education Series includes awareness of healthier school meals for children, inclusion of more fruits and vegetables daily, along with whole-grain rich foods. The offering of a variety of low fat and Overview of Emergency Nursing fat free milk, reducing saturated fats and action still salt, increase in water intake. Meeting caloric needs through portion sizes, development of wellness programs, making better food choices and resources available to wilkins, parents. 2. Does? Emphasis on each food group with interactive group participation to name at least three healthy food items of choice 3. Name how healthy eating benefits the brain, heart and digestion, along with getting at least 60 minutes of exercise daily. C. Students will identify or select the healthier food items offered introduced at the beginning of presentation. 1. Choose MyPlate coloring activity will allow for good communication a visual picture to reinforce the does affirmative exist, five food groups in a simple manner. 2. Draw three healthy food items on their MyPlate activity sheet. 3. Overview Of Emergency Nursing Essay? Reinforce healthy eating habits with a take home pamphlet for the parents that describe 10 tips for healthy snacking. Evaluation of Teaching and Learning. Evaluation of action, teaching and learning strategies were accurate, clear and appropriate for the second grade students. The teaching plan was simple and interactive to meet each individual learning need. World:? The health promotion plan and activity outlined can be followed to teach other second grade students the importance of healthy eating habits using the free resources and information available on action the website Choosemyplate.gov MyPlate Kid’s Place. The evaluation of learner objectives was measured by having the students re-evaluate their previous food item choice and compare it to the healthier food item. The scores were significantly higher were 92% the students identified and selected healthier food items listed. Open class discussion was used to determine if the teaching strategies used were appropriate for Overview of Emergency Nursing Essay the students. Does Action? The students expressed understanding and enjoying the class, the activities used and having a parent teaching the communication examples, class. Positive feedback was given by the teacher present and students. The students were comfortable in their classroom setting, which is the appropriate environment for learning. Affirmative Action Exist? The health promotion event was successful and effective in educating second grade students on 6th extinction healthy eating habits. The students expressed eagerness to share the affirmative, resource pamphlet with their parents. The information shared would have been more effective and beneficial if the second graders parents were present, but studies show that second graders are influential in assisting parents make healthy eating choices for good communication them with the information they learn. Blais, K. K., & Hayes, J. S. (2011). Professional nursing practice: concepts and perspectives (6th ed.), New Jersey: Pearson U.S. Department of action still exist, Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 2010 Jacksonville University College of Overview of Emergency, Health Sciences (2012). Affirmative Action Still Exist? School of banking with, nursing mission. Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://www.ju.edu/COHS/Pages/School-of-Nursing-Mission.aspx Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Assistant Secretary for does affirmative action still Health, Office of the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, May 2014. Retrieved from with http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf U.S. Department of exist, Agriculture. ChooseMyPlate.gov Website. Washington, DC. Color Sheet. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from self reflection sample http://www.choosemyplate.gov/kids/downloads/ColoringSheet.pdf U.S. Department of Agriculture. ChooseMyPlate.gov Website. Washington, DC. Action Still Exist? School Day Just Got Healthier. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://www.choosemyplate.gov/foodgroups/downloads/TenTips/DGTipsheet21SchoolDayJustGotHealthier.pdf. University/College: University of self reflection essay sample, Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 13 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on does exist Promoting Healthy Eating Habits in Second Graders. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.