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Theft and Shoplifting Research Paper. This sample Theft and Shoplifting Research Paper is proctor, published for educational and informational purposes only. The Ruling In Plessy Of Segregation?? Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research paper. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on proctor the crucible any of the criminal justice research paper topics . Governs Least? This sample research paper on proctor theft and shoplifting features: 6200+ words (24 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 61 sources. II. Defining Common Types of Theft. B. Motor Vehicle Theft. III. Prevalence of Theft and Shoplifting in Society Today. A. New Mexico? Demographic Variations in Theft. IV. Understanding the Causes of Theft: Criminological Research and Theory. A. Economic Conditions and Theft. 1. Income Inequality and Theft. 2. The Crucible? Unemployment and The Ghost Essay Theft. 3. Market Forces and Theft. B. Environment, Opportunity, and Theft. 1. Routine Activities and Theft. 2. Environmental Factors and Theft. C. Proctor? Theft and Drug Use. In the that which United States and elsewhere, theft commonly refers to the illegal taking and proctor the crucible possessing of Misconceptions College Students Who Obtain, another’s property, anything of proctor the crucible, value, with the that government governs least intent to permanently deprive that person of the item or the value of the item taken. Shoplifting is a certain kind of theft (i.e., larceny-theft) that occurs at retail stores and commercial businesses. Theft and shoplifting are two types of property crime. Other property crimes are burglary, motor vehicle theft, and arson. While there are many kinds of theft, those discussed here are larceny-theft, burglary, and motor vehicle theft. None of these crimes features the the crucible use of force against people. Common examples of larceny-theft include stealing a bike or someone’s wallet (pickpocketing), or taking things from a retail store, e.g., CDs or clothes. Theft and shoplifting are important to address because they account for Misconceptions College Who Obtain the largest portion of all criminal offending in proctor, the United States. Laws against them date back to ancient Roman law (e.g., Hammurabi Codes) and English common law. In those times, the crime of theft was rampant, and proscriptions about what to do with thieves dominated extant law. These codes and laws have played an important role in shaping modern criminal law in the United States. Today, the forces that motivate theft are powerful and ever present, and the consequences of theft are felt by individuals, businesses, communities, and government agencies. The research paper begins with a discussion of the major types of theft and shoplifting, followed by the prevalence of each in U.S. Which? society today. The Crucible? Here, some demographic and regional variations in theft rates are examined, as well as the offenders who are involved. From there, the discussion moves to of Parental Students Essay the major schools of thought regarding why theft and shoplifting take place and the crucible what society can do to address the the colony of georgia was originally founded as a refuge problem. The research paper concludes with some observations for future research, theory, and the crucible practice. II. Defining Common Types of Theft. In most societies today, including the United States, there are many different legal classifications of theft across jurisdictions. In the United States, there are state and local laws against a variety of theft categories and another level of codes at the federal level. Most states divide theft into “major” or felony theft and “petty” or misdemeanor theft. Classifications usually depend on the value of the item taken. Below, three different kinds of theft are reviewed: larceny-theft (which includes shoplifting), motor vehicle theft, and burglary. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) is the official and leading data source on that government is best crimes reported to proctor the crucible the police and arrests made by them in the United States. As such, the definitions articulated in the UCR formally define what is known about crime in society today. According to the UCR, larceny-theft is the “unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another” (FBI, 2008). Common examples of larceny-theft include stealing bicycles, shoplifting goods from retail stores or businesses, pickpocketing, or swiping someone’s laptop at an Internet cafe or other location. Larceny-theft covers any stealing of property that is not taken by force, violence, or fraud. Included in the FBI’s definition are attempted larcenies. The FBI has a separate category of theft for stolen automobiles and other motor vehicles. Motor vehicles are those that are self-propelled on land surfaces, not on water or railways. Of Cloudcroft New Mexico Essay? Examples include cars, motorcycles, trucks, buses, sport utility vehicles, snowmobiles, and so forth. This category of theft does not, however, include farm equipment, airplanes, or any type of the crucible, boat or Jet Ski. Joyriding, or the temporary taking of of Parental Involvement with Students, a vehicle, is not included in the category of motor vehicle theft. Burglary is a type of theft very different from larceny-theft and motor vehicle theft because it requires unlawful entry—trespassing into a facility so as to steal a given item. Proctor The Crucible? This unlawful entry into a private or secured dwelling for purposes of theft makes burglary a more serious offense than simple larceny or shoplifting. The UCR defines burglary as “the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft” (FBI, 2008). One does not have to exert force to enter a facility in order to be guilty of burglary. In fact, there are three subclassifications of burglary specified in the UCR. They include forcible entry, unlawful entry where no force was used, and attempted forcible entry. Common examples of structures that are burglarized include homes, apartments, offices, and retail stores. III. Prevalence of Theft and government is best which governs least Shoplifting in Society Today. According to official data (FBI, 2008), there were about 10 million property crimes reported to the police in 2006. Proctor? This translates to an estimated property crime rate of 3,334.5 for every 100,000 U.S. residents. Nearly two thirds of all property crimes are larceny-thefts (Bureau of The Ghost of Cloudcroft New Mexico Essay, Justice Statistics [BJS], 2006). According to the BJS, theft from motor vehicles (a type of larceny-theft and not theft of the actual vehicle, i.e., motor vehicle theft) comprises the largest portion of larceny-thefts annually. This pattern has remained consistent over time. Theft from buildings and shoplifting follow in second and third place, respectively. As indicated above, property crimes like theft yield significant costs to society. According to the crucible the BJS, losses from property crimes in of Cloudcroft Essay, 2006 totaled about $17.6 billion. Like other crimes, rates of property crime have declined significantly from the early 1990s, when the United States began to see a national crime drop (Blumstein & Wallman, 2005). Rates of proctor the crucible, property crime offending and victimization are highest in of Parental Students Essay, cities and much lower in the suburbs and rural areas (BJS, 2005b, 2006). Contrary to logic, perhaps, the highest rates of property crime victimization are reported in the poorest of American households (BJS, 2005b). For example, burglary, motor vehicle theft, and major and minor larceny victimizations are higher in households with incomes below $7,500 per year than in households earning more than that. The exception to this pattern is that larceny-theft victimizations are about as high in households earning $75,000 or more per proctor the crucible year as they are in households earning less than $7,500. Below is a comparison of the The Ghost crime literature on the market value of the crucible, goods and their risk of theft with claims by affect the legalities of segregation?, routine activities theorists. The market value approach suggests that theft should be highest where goods are most plentiful and most valuable. Proctor? This would seem to how did in plessy v. ferguson the legalities suggest higher rates of theft victimization in higher-income households, a contradiction to proctor the crucible the data reported above by in plessy v. ferguson affect, the BJS (2005b). However, the the crucible routine activities claim that motivated offenders (e.g., lower-income people residing in poorer households) confronted with easy targets (e.g., unattended households not guarded by locks or alarms) leads to high rates of property crime victimization, may help explain greater theft victimization in poorer households. A. Demographic Variations in Theft. Offenses and arrests for theft are not evenly distributed across demographic groups. Least? In general, adult males who live in urban areas are responsible for the highest levels of theft and other property crimes. The exception to this pattern is for motor vehicle theft, which has been historically dominated by adolescent males. While research shows most females offenders are arrested for drug offenses, property crimes, and prostitution (Anderson, 2008), males still outpace females with respect to arrests for theft and shoplifting. However, women have gained ground on the crucible men in recent times. With respect to theft victimizations, data show that African Americans are more likely to have their homes burglarized and their vehicles stolen than are whites (BJS, 2005a). Whites, on the other hand, are more often victims of larceny-theft than are blacks. Data (BJS, 2005a) show that a large portion of Importance Involvement, property arrestees at the local and state level committed their offense to proctor get money for variance drugs. In fact, property arrestees were more likely than violent crime or drug arrestees to commit their crimes for money for drugs. The relationships among theft, shoplifting, and drugs are elaborated below. IV. Understanding the Causes of Theft: Criminological Research and Theory. The field of criminology has approached the study of theft with respect to two theoretical issues that have occupied scholarly attention for proctor the crucible several decades. The first is the relationship between macro-level economic forces and New Mexico theft, typically conceptualized in the crucible, terms of Misconceptions Pertaining College a Job, classic strain theory (Merton, 1938) or social disorganization theory (Shaw & McKay, 1942). The Crucible? The second centers on the extent to which rates of of Cloudcroft New Mexico Essay, theft reflect the proctor opportunities for crime provided by Importance Involvement with Essay, certain locations and the processes by which potential victims and offenders converge in the crucible, space and time. This conceptual focus was strongly influenced both by the development of routine activities theory (Cohen & Felson, 1979) and a growing emphasis on the role of the physical and social environment in shaping opportunities for theft (Reppetto, 1974). In the following sections, a summary of research in these two main conceptual areas is provided. Following that, research is reviewed that has examined the relationship between drug use and addiction and theft. The relationship between income inequality and theft is one of the most enduring in all of criminology and is generally conceptualized in terms of classic strain theory (Merton, 1938). Strain theory posits that theft is the result of the gap between the culturally induced aspirations for economic success and the structurally distributed possibilities for achieving it. Merton predicted that some individuals would respond to the strain between aspiration and the lack of refuge for, opportunity by proctor, engaging in criminal behavior such as theft. Pertaining Students Who Obtain Essay? The theory assumes similar success aspirations across social classes and posits that crime is disproportionately concentrated in proctor, the lower class because they have the fewest legitimate opportunities for achievement and so are the most vulnerable to this pressure or strain. Simply put, overemphasis on material success and efficiency variance lack of opportunity for this kind of proctor the crucible, success lead to crime. Recent research indicates that income inequality is the most consistent structural correlate of rates for theft and other forms of property crime (Bursik & Grasmick, 1993; Walsh &Taylor, 2007). All forms of theft tend to occur disproportionately in poor, isolated, socially disadvantaged neighborhoods (Bernasco & Nieuwbeerta, 2005; Reisig & Cancino, 2004). In the United States in particular, social isolation and poverty are highly racialized. Research also finds that residential segregation, which is often a proxy measure for Misconceptions Students Who Obtain Essay black–white income inequality, is proctor the crucible, strongly associated with burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft (Akins, 2003). Racialized income inequality leading to residential segregation can be traced to fundamental changes in the labor market, which resulted in the elimination of industrial jobs in major cities (Wilson, 1987). Government Which? This fundamental economic shift is consistent with both sociological and criminological anomie theories, which predict an inability or failure of certain segments of the population to effectively adapt to major structural or economic changes (Merton, 1938), or that they will react to such changes by engaging in crime. Similarly, research has also found links between welfare and theft suggested by classic strain, familial support, and variations of social disorganization theory. Both monetary assistance levels and welfare participation rates are negatively associated with all forms of theft (R. C. Allen & Stone, 1999). Basically, if state and local governments take measures to alleviate economic inequality by providing job training, welfare benefits, as well as ground-level efforts to proctor improve communities by providing access to after-school programs and such, rates of theft decline substantially. In general, it is evident that state and local governments with strong welfare and monetary assistance programs will experience lower rates of theft. That Governs? This research is proctor, also consistent with more recent formulations of social disorganization theory (Hunter, 1985; Sampson, Raudenbush, & Earls, 1997). Of Georgia As A Refuge? That is, the inability or unwillingness of proctor the crucible, families and neighbors to come together for the betterment of their community tends to Importance with Students Essay result in higher rates of all forms of crime. These factors are particularly well established as correlates of major forms of proctor, theft such as residential burglary, motor vehicle theft, and robbery (Reisig & Cancino, 2004; Rice & Smith, 2002). Accordingly, establishing higher levels of social control and cooperation among families, friends, neighbors, and public organizations such as the police will lead to lower rates of theft. The unemployment rate is one of the most commonly used measures in research on Importance Involvement with the relationship of economic conditions and theft. Research and theory addressing the connection between unemployment and theft consistently predict that higher rates of unemployment lead to higher rates of theft (Bursik & Grasmick, 1993; Merton, 1938; Wilson, 1987). Given the proctor theoretical consensus, one would assume that the empirical relationship would be fairly strong regardless of its interpretation. Findings, however, are quite inconsistent. The Ruling In Plessy V. Ferguson Affect The Legalities Of Segregation?? Some research has found a positive relationship between unemployment and theft (Carmichael & Ward, 2001; Reilly & Witt, 1996), some research has found a negative relationship (Cantor & Land, 1985; Land, Cantor, & Russell, 1995), and other work has failed to find any appreciable effect (Weatherburn, Lind, & Ku, 2001). The continuation of mixed findings has led some criminologists to question whether the unemployment rate is a useful indicator in conceptualizing the proctor the crucible relationship between economic conditions and theft, or at least, to conclude that it must be understood as one of a number of measures of economic hardship (Cantor & Land, 1985). A growing body of research suggests that the effect of unemployment on theft is how did the ruling v. ferguson, not straightforward, but rather, is contingent on various demographic or contextual factors. One consistent predictor is length of unemployment. Research suggests that individuals are more likely to commit crime the longer they are unemployed (Witt, Clarke, & Fielding, 1996). This indicates that individuals are generally able to endure short-lived instances of economic hardship, but will resort to theft if no legitimate opportunities surface in the crucible, a reasonable period of time. Other demographic predictors are less reliable. The relationship appears to vary by age, but research is mixed as to the precise nature of the relationship. For example, some research has identified a link between adult male unemployment and theft (Carmichael &Ward, 2001), while other studies have found that unemployment is only related to rates of theft among juveniles (Britt, 1997). The kind of theft that occurs as a result of in plessy v. ferguson affect, unemployment also appears to be impacted by considerations related to national or regional culture. For example, one recent study (Herzog, 2005) examined the relationship between unemployment and crime by focusing on the unique framework provided by the large, integrated labor force of Palestinian workers employed in the crucible, Israel over the past few decades. Overall, a relationship between unemployment among Palestinians and theft in the ruling v. ferguson the legalities, Israel was not found, except in one case: motor vehicle theft. As such, it appears that the relationship between economic hardship and crime may not be a general one, but rather, is the crucible, specific to certain forms of activity (Herzog, 2005). The main point to emphasize is that the relationship between unemployment and theft is far more nuanced than previously believed. Which Governs? The complexity of proctor, this relationship is further illustrated by Cantor and is best governs Land’s (1985) seminal work on the differential effects of motivation and the crucible opportunity. They argue that although rises in the unemployment rate may increase criminal motivation to commit theft, they may also decrease the opportunity to successfully complete theft. Simply put, if people aren’t working, they’re likely at home, which increases guardianship (Cantor & Land, 1985; Land et al., 1995). Despite this reasoning, recent research has found that overall, opportunity levels are unrelated to theft rates and do not appear to mediate the unemployment– crime relationship for of Parental Students Essay most forms of theft (Kleck & Chiricos, 2002). Presently, then, it appears that the motivation to commit theft due to proctor unemployment is stronger than the Essay decreased opportunities that are theorized to decrease theft during periods of unemployment. Theft is also directly impacted by the nature of the capitalist economy and the market for certain items, as well as other, more subjective economic indicators such as consumer confidence. A recent study (Rosenfeld & Fernango, 2007) found that consumer confidence and optimism had significant effects on theft rates that were largely independent of objective indicators such as unemployment and the crucible economic growth. Of Georgia Was Originally As A Refuge For? Consumer sentiment also accounted for a significant portion of the overall crime decline that began during the early 1990s. This suggests that broad economic conditions, beyond the unemployment rate, are useful in modeling rates of theft in recent decades. Research also suggests that theft rates are directly impacted by the crucible, the cycle of the free market. Patterns of theft seem to be initially related to goods production. The relationship is straightforward: with more new items to consume, there is more to steal (Von Hofer & Tham, 2000). Then, when products reach the “saturation” stage, where people who want an item (such as a VCR or CD player) already have it, prices decline and such items are less likely to be stolen (Felson, 1996). This line of research supports a theft market life cycle of innovation, growth, mass market, and saturation. The optimum time to steal goods is during the “growth” phase, where demand for newer items is of Parental, highest. The most inopportune time to steal goods is during the “saturation” period, where most everyone who wants an item already has it. These factors are also related to both prices and ownership levels of an the crucible item (Felson, 1996; Von Hofer & Tham, 2000). This research suggests that instances of theft can likely be reduced by an awareness and manipulation of certain licit markets as well as the pricing of merchandise (Wellsmith & Burrell, 2005). B. Environment, Opportunity, and Theft. There is a large amount of literature devoted to which conceptualizing the relationship between criminal opportunity and theft. The dominant theoretical framework shaping this line of the crucible, inquiry is routine activities theory (Cohen & Felson, 1979), which assumes that crime represents a convergence in time and space of motivated offenders, suitable targets, and variance a lack of effective guardianship (surveillance and protection) of persons and property. These key variables were later refined to incorporate dimensions of exposure (physical visibility), proximity (physical distance), and target attractiveness, and the guardianship variable was extended to proctor the crucible account for security guards, bouncers, police presence, and variance so forth. Research in this area implies that individual-level efforts to increase the security, surveillance, or guardianship provided should decrease theft victimization risk. Several measures of the crucible, individual-level guardianship have been linked to burglary victimization, specifically. For example, type of residence (Coupe & Blake, 2006), household composition (Tseloni, Wittebrood, Farrell, & Pease, 2004), and certain leisure activities (Miethe & Meier, 1994; Mustaine & Tewksbury, 1998) are all highly correlated with theft outcomes. Research consistently demonstrates that younger, single persons who are renting, living in transitional neighborhoods, or engaging in nighttime leisure activities experience a substantially higher risk of theft victimization. Specifically, lifestyles that include dining out often and regularly frequenting bars, clubs, and taverns are all highly correlated with minor theft victimization (Anderson, Kavanaugh, Bachman, & Harrison, 2007; Mustaine & Tewksbury, 1998; Smith, Bowers, & Johnson, 2006). These lifestyle factors are also strong predictors of repeat theft victimization and repeated violent victimizations (Anderson et al., 2007; Wittebrood & Nieuwbeerta, 2000). Other research finds that older people are an increasingly attractive target population for various forms of theft, including residential burglary (Mawby & Jones, 2006) and petty theft (Harris & Benson, 1999). Conversely, engaging in routine activities that provide protection of that governs least, homes and vehicles (target hardening), including locking doors, installing alarms, and proctor the crucible light timer devices, are negatively correlated with theft victimization (Miethe & Meier, 1994). Accordingly, successful theft reduction initiatives include hardening techniques that overlap with individual-level guardianship. These include improved street lighting (Painter & Farrington, 1998), the Essay establishment of Neighborhood Watch groups (Forrester, Chatterton, & Pease, 1988), alarm systems (Hakim, Gaffney, Rengert, & Shachmurove, 1995), improved locks and doors (Tilley & Webb, 1994), ensuring possessions are out of view (Bromley & Cochran, 2002), and the gating of residential property (Bowers, Johnson, & Hirschfield, 2004). 2. Environmental Factors and Theft. Brantingham and Brantingham (1999) suggested that the selection of theft targets is proctor, largely dependent on an assessment of the immediate environment of the target. Essentially, this work makes a strong case for incorporating elements of social context in understanding theft. As such, more recent research has incorporated elements of neighborhood control, derived from social disorganization theory (Miethe & Meier, 1994; Wilcox, Madensen, & Tillyer, 2007), in an attempt to offer a more holistic model of theft that accounts for social context and the role of the physical environment. This work has found that environmental cues in Importance of Parental Involvement, neighborhoods extending beyond the the crucible specific target are, in fact, important considerations. Findings consistently indicate that all forms of theft tend to occur at higher rates in of georgia as a for, poor, socially isolated neighborhoods (Akins, 2003; Rice & Smith, 2002;Walsh &Taylor, 2007). It is important to note that the role of “environment” in theft extends beyond a consideration of the neighborhood. Proctor? More recent research has begun to conceptualize the efficiency variance role of the environment in broader terms. Other environmental factors such as the time of day, time of week, and season of the year (Bromley & Cochran, 2002; Coupe & Blake, 2006) all function to shape theft outcomes. Local or regional culture can play a role as well (Herzog, 2005; Painter & Farrington, 1998). For example, Burns (2000) found that the southern and western regions of the United States experience higher percentages of stolen trucks than the Midwestern and Northeastern regions. Burns (2000) suggests that this is because in these regions, trucks are recognized as ingrained artifacts of their respective cultures. Their attractiveness as targets has increased due to the fact that these vehicles are an integral part of their local culture. Proximity to major roads is another important environmental consideration shaping perceived opportunity for the crucible residential burglary (Rengert &Wasilchick, 2000) and especially for auto theft (Lu, 2006). With respect to commercial theft, research has found that it is typically clustered in areas with a large number of liquor licenses— namely, convenience stores, restaurants, and Pertaining College Students Who Obtain a Job bars— indicating that land use is another important variable in structuring theft outcomes (Smith et al., 2006). Predicting when and where theft crimes are most likely to occur is crucial for prioritizing police resources (Kane, 2006), and research indicates that theft is highly likely to be deterred by aggressive policing practices that target “hot spots” and certain neighborhoods. The potential deterrent effect, however, is further shaped by environmental factors. With respect to residential burglary, for example, research has found that (1) repeat victimization in general tends to occur in the crucible, poorer areas; (2) houses located next to a previously victimized house are at a substantially higher risk relative to those located farther away, particularly within one week of an initial burglary; and the ruling in plessy the legalities (3) properties located on the same side of the street as a previously victimized house are at significantly greater risk compared with those opposite proctor the crucible (Bowers at al., 2004). The selection of theft targets is also conditioned by two additional factors related to accessibility: (1) proximity to the homes of the offenders and (2) proximity to the central business and entertainment districts (Bernasco & Nieuwbeerta, 2005; Bromley & Cochran, 2002). This is the case with both residential and auto burglaries (breaking into cars to steal stereos or possessions), as well as auto thefts. Installation of new security measures often fails to deter repeat victimization, suggesting target familiarity is an Pertaining College Who Obtain Essay overriding priority for offenders and can sometimes negate the beneficial effects of target hardening and even police presence (Palmer, Holmes, & Hollon, 2002). Illicit drug use, particularly heroin use, became associated with property crime in proctor the crucible, the 1970s based on the reasoning that users will turn to burglary, fraud, shoplifting, as well as other forms of crime such as robbery and prostitution, to obtain money to maintain their addictions. Such reports emerged during the Nixon administration, and remain popular in anti-drug campaigns today. In criminology, this reasoning was formalized in Goldstein’s (1985) economic-compulsive model of variance, drug use and crime. Heroin and cocaine, because they are expensive drugs typified by compulsive patterns of use, are the most relevant substances in this category. While some scholars have framed these claims as exaggerated attempts to drum up public support for “get tough on crime” policies, an empirical link between drug use and the crucible theft does exist. Of Parental Involvement With Students Essay? Two things, however, should be noted. First, the onset of the crucible, participation in crimes such as theft and shoplifting tends to precede induction into drug use (C. Allen, 2005), so the relationship is not directly causal. Second, the relationship between theft and drug use is observable only with serious and prolonged narcotics use. There is The Ghost, a much weaker, almost negligible relationship between regular use of marijuana or other hallucinogens and theft. In studies that have observed a positive relationship, theft and drug use tend to be correlated simply because they are common measures of general delinquency. However, research consistently demonstrates that regular use of harder drugs such as heroin and crack cocaine will eventually lead to proctor participation in theft and is therefore strongly related to, if not a direct cause of, theft (C. Involvement With Essay? Allen, 2005; Best, Sidwell, Gossop, Harris, & Strang, 2001). Patterns of theft involvement tend to proctor the crucible vary with respect to the recent levels of drug activity, with users reporting the highest levels of drug expenditure and accordingly, the highest rates of crime (Best et al., 2001; Manzoni, Brochu, Fischer, & Rehm, 2006). Petty forms of crime by drug users such as shoplifting and bicycle theft tend to how did v. ferguson the legalities be the most common, whereas burglaries and motor vehicle thefts are exceedingly rare (Van der Zanden, Dijkgraaf, Blanken, Van Ree, & Van den Brink, 2006). Proctor The Crucible? Violent forms of The Ghost New Mexico Essay, theft such as street robbery and purse snatchings tend to the crucible be one-off occurrences rather than criminal lifestyles (C. Allen, 2005). Frequent crack cocaine and other hard drug users are equally likely to with Students Essay be heavily involved in drug selling or prostitution, as well as the performance of marginal, part-time work in the legal economy (Cross, Johnson, Davis, & Liberty, 2001). The point is that neither serious nor petty theft functions as a primary source of proctor, income to support individual drug habits. Drug offenders are far more likely to recidivate with a drug offense than either theft or violent crime. Theft has very immediate and costly consequences. It is one of the most prevalent forms of criminal behavior in with Students, the United States, consistently accounting for proctor around 80% of all crimes reported to the police in a given year. Importance Essay? However, the the crucible social processes reflected in theft are extremely complex. More so than almost any other crime, theft is heavily dependent on opportunity. Even the most motivated offenders may ignore attractive targets if they are well guarded. This fundamental consideration has led many criminologists to approach the study of Importance with Students Essay, theft in terms of proctor, routine activities theory, the most enduring explanatory framework that accounts for variables such as time, place, space, and situations. Routine activities theory is linked to Students both opportunity and lifestyle, and living arrangements. This, in proctor, turn, has led to an increasing focus on the role of Misconceptions College a Job, environmental context in shaping theft outcomes, and more recent research has made an effort to conceptualize routine activities variables in broader terms, incorporating variables related to proctor the crucible neighborhood social organization. This inevitably opens the door to readdressing issues of income inequality, unemployment, and community poverty and exploring how these interrelated variables coalesce to was originally founded as a for constitute risk environments, shaping both opportunity and motivation in new and unique ways. Such conclusions have important crime-prevention implications. Prior research has focused on either situational theft and theft prevention or aggregate-level rates of theft in countries or states, highlighting socioeconomic inequality. Recent research suggests that incorporating these two broad explanatory frameworks is useful in effectively understanding the whens and whys of theft. Such possibilities suggest the use of more context-driven crime-prevention policies that incorporate new and inventive understandings of social environments as well as economic factors. Akins, S. (2003). Racial segregation and the crucible property crime: Examining the mediating effect of police strength. Justice Quarterly, 20(4), 675–695. Allen, C. (2005). The links between heroin, crack cocaine and crime: Where does street crime fit in? British Journal of Criminology, 45, 355–372. Allen, R. C., & Stone, J. H. College Students Who Obtain A Job Essay? (1999). Market and public policy mechanisms in poverty reduction: The differential effects on proctor property crime. Review of Social Economy, 62, 156–173. Anderson, T. L. (2008). Neither villain nor victim: Empowerment and variance agency among women substance abusers. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Anderson, T. L., Kavanaugh, P. R., Bachman, R., & Harrison, L. D. (2007). Exploring the drugs–crime connection within the electronic dance music and hip-hop nightclub scenes. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice. Proctor? Bernasco,W., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2005). Importance Involvement Students Essay? How do residential burglars select target areas? A new approach to the analysis of proctor the crucible, criminal location choice. British Journal of Criminology, 45, 296–315. The Ghost New Mexico? Best, D., Sidwell, C., Gossop, M., Harris, J., & Strang, J. (2001). Crime and expenditure amongst polydrug misusers seeking treatment: The connection between prescribed methadone and crack use, and criminal involvement. The Crucible? British Journal of Criminology, 41, 119–126. Blumstein, A., & Wallman, J. (Eds.). (2005). The crime drop in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Bowers, K. J., Johnson, S. D., & Hirschfield, A. F. How Did Affect The Legalities Of Segregation?? (2004). Closing off opportunities for crime: An evaluation of the crucible, alleygating. European Journal on College Students Who Obtain a Job Criminal Policy and Research, 10, 285–308. The Crucible? Brantingham, P. L., & Brantingham, P. J. (1999). New Mexico? A theoretical model of crime hot spot generation. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 8, 7–26. Britt, C. L. (1997). Reconsidering the unemployment and crime relationship: Variations by age group and historical period. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 13, 405–428. Proctor The Crucible? Bromley, M. The Colony Of Georgia Was Originally For? L., & Cochran, J. The Crucible? K. V. Ferguson Affect The Legalities Of Segregation?? (2002). Proctor? Auto burglaries in an entertainment district hotspot: Applying the SARA model in a security context. Security Journal, 15, 63–72. Bureau of Justice Statistics. How Did The Ruling V. Ferguson The Legalities? (2005a). Drugs and Crime Facts. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of the crucible, Justice Statistics. (2005b). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics. Albany: State University of New York Press. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2006). The Colony? Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics. Albany: State University of New York Press. Burns, R. (2000). Proctor? Culture as a determinant of crime: An alternative perspective. Environment and efficiency variance Behavior, 32, 347–360. Bursik. R. J., Jr., & Grasmick, H. The Crucible? G. (1993). Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective community control. New York: Lexington. Cantor, D., & Land, K. C. (1985). Unemployment and crime rates in the colony of georgia was originally founded, the post–World War II United States: A theoretical and empirical analysis. American Sociological Review, 50, 317–332. Carmichael, F., &Ward, R. (2001).Male unemployment and crime in England and Wales. Economics Letters, 73, 111–115. Cohen, L., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activities approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–607. Coupe, T., & Blake, L. (2006). Daylight and darkness targeting strategies and the risks of being seen at residential burglaries. Criminology, 44, 431–464. Proctor? Cross, J. Efficiency? C., Johnson, B. D., Davis, R.W., & Liberty, H. J. (2001). Supporting the habit: Income generation activities of frequent crack users compared with frequent users of other hard drugs. Proctor The Crucible? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 64, 191–201. Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2008). Uniform Crime Reports 2006.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Of Cloudcroft Essay? Felson, M. (1996). Preventing retail theft: An application of environmental criminology. Security Journal, 7, 71–75. Forrester, D., Chatterton, M., & Pease, K. Proctor? (1988). The Ghost Of Cloudcroft? The Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project, Rochdale (Crime Prevention Unit Paper 13). London: Home Office. Goldstein, P. Proctor The Crucible? J. (1985). Efficiency? The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of Drug Issues, 15, 493–506. Hakim, S., Gaffney, M. A., Rengert, G., & Shachmurove, J. (1995). Costs and benefits of alarms to the community: Burglary patterns and security measures in proctor, Tredyffrin Township, Pennsylvania. Security Journal, 6, 197–204. Harris, D. K., & Benson, M. L. (1999). Theft in nursing homes: An overlooked form of elder abuse. Journal of The Ghost of Cloudcroft New Mexico Essay, Elder Abuse and Neglect, 11, 73–90. Herzog, S. (2005). The relationship between economic hardship and crime: The case of Israel and the Palestinians. Sociological Perspectives, 48, 189–211. Proctor The Crucible? Hunter, A. J. (1985). Importance Of Parental With Students Essay? Private, parochial, and public school orders: The problem of crime and incivility in urban communities. In G. D. Suttles & M. N. Zald (Eds.), The challenge of social control: Citizenship and institution building in modern society (pp. 230–242). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Kane, R. J. The Crucible? (2006). On the limits of social control: Structural deterrence and the policing of “suppressible” crimes. Justice Quarterly, 23, 186–213. Kleck, G., & Chiricos, T. How Did The Ruling Affect Of Segregation?? (2002). Unemployment and property crime: A target-specific assessment of opportunity and motivation as mediating factors. Criminology, 40, 649–680. Land, K. C., Cantor, D., & Russell, S. (1995). Unemployment and crime rate fluctuations in proctor the crucible, the post–World War II United States: Statistical time-series properties and alternative models. The Ghost Of Cloudcroft New Mexico? In J. Hagan & R. D. Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality (pp. 55–79). Proctor? Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Of Parental Involvement Students Essay? Lu, Y. (2006). Spatial choice of auto thefts in an urban environment. Security Journal, 19, 143–166. The Crucible? Manzoni, P., Brochu, S., Fischer, B., & Rehm, J. (2006). Of Cloudcroft Essay? Determinants of property crime among illicit opiate users outside of treatment across Canada. Deviant Behavior, 27, 351–376. Mawby, R. Proctor? I., & Jones, C. (2006). Evaluation of a national burglary reduction initiative targeting older people. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 8, 209–227. Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. Misconceptions Who Obtain A Job? American Sociological Review, 3, 672–682. Miethe, T. Proctor? D., & Meier, R. F. (1994). Crime and its social context: Toward an integrated theory of offenders, victims, and situations. Albany: State University of New York Press. Mustaine, E. E., & Tewksbury, R. (1998). Predicting risks of larceny theft victimization: A routine activity analysis using refined lifestyle measures. Criminology, 36, 829–857. Painter, K. Of Georgia Was Originally Founded As A Refuge? A., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Criminal victimization on a Caribbean island. International Review of proctor, Victimology, 6, 1–16. Palmer, E. The Colony Was Originally Founded As A For? J., Holmes, A., & Hollon, C. R. (2002). Investigating burglars’ decisions: Factors influencing target choice, method of entry, reasons for offending, repeat victimization of a property. Security Journal, 15, 7–18. Rengert, G. F., &Wasilchick, J. (2000). Suburban burglary: A tale of two suburbs (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Reilly, B., & Witt, R. (1996). Crime, deterrence and unemployment in England and proctor Wales: An empirical analysis. Bulletin of Economic Research, 48, 137–159. Reisig, M. Variance? D., & Cancino, J. M. (2004). Incivilities in nonmetropolitan communities: The effects of structural constraints, social conditions, and crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32, 15–29. Reppetto, T. Proctor? A. How Did The Ruling In Plessy V. Ferguson? (1974). Residential crime. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. Rice, K. J., & Smith, W. R. (2002). Socioecological models of automotive theft: Integrating routine activity and the crucible social disorganization approaches. Journal of Research in Crime and Misconceptions Pertaining Students Essay Delinquency, 39, 304–336. Rosenfeld, R., & Fornango, R. Proctor? (2007). The impact of economic conditions on robbery and property crime: The role of consumer sentiment. Criminology, 45, 735–769. Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and variance violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924. Proctor The Crucible? Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Smith, C., Bowers, K. J., & Johnson, S. D. (2006). Understanding bag theft within licensed premises in Westminster: Identifying initial steps towards prevention. Security Journal, 19, 3–21. Tilley, N., &Webb, J. (1994). Burglary reduction: Findings from Safer Cities schemes. (Crime Prevention Unit Paper 51). London: Home Office. Tseloni, A., Wittebrood, K., Farrell, G., & Pease, K. (2004). Burglary victimization in the colony of georgia for, England and Wales, the United States and the Netherlands. Proctor? British Journal of Criminology, 44, 66–91. Van der Zanden, B. Importance With? P., Dijkgraaf, M. G., Blanken, P., Van Ree, J.M., & Van den Brink, W. (2006). Patterns of acquisitive crime during methadone maintenance treatment among patients eligible for heroin assisted treatment. Drug and proctor the crucible Alcohol Dependence, 86, 84–90. Von Hofer, H., & Tham, H. (2000). Theft in efficiency, Sweden 1831–1998. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 1, 195–210. Walsh, J. The Crucible? A., & Taylor, R. B. (2007). Community structural predictors of spatially aggregated motor vehicle theft rates: Do they replicate? Journal of efficiency, Criminal Justice, 35, 297–311. Weatherburn, D., Lind, B., & Ku, S. (2001). The short-run effects of economic adversity on property crime: An Australian case study. Australian and New Zealand Journal of the crucible, Criminology, 34, 134–148. Wellsmith, M., & Burrell, A. (2005).The influence of purchase price and ownership levels of theft targets: The example of domestic burglary. British Journal of Criminology, 45, 741–764. Wilcox, P., Madensen, T. D., & Tillyer, M. S. (2007). Guardianship in context: Implications for burglary victimization risk and prevention. Criminology, 45, 771–803. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Witt, R., Clarke, A., & Fielding, N. (1996). Are higher long-term unemployment rates associated with higher crime? Surrey, UK: Department of Economics, University of Surrey. Wittebrood, K., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2000). Criminal victimization during one’s life course: The effects of of Cloudcroft Essay, previous victimization and patterns of the crucible, routine activities. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 91–122. Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions. You can use our professional writing services to order a custom research paper on of georgia founded as a refuge criminal justice and get your high quality paper at affordable price.

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The Secret Life of proctor the crucible Bees Essay Questions. What are some of the ways that bees serve as symbols in Lily's life? a) Bees symbolize Lily's mother in government which governs, a number of instances throughout the novel. In Sylvan, Lily feels her mother's presence when swarms of bees enter her room. Her mother's name, Deborah, literally translates as "bee." She follows the path of her mother to Tiburon and finds herself on a honey farm. b) Bees model human society. Once Lily begins her beekeeper training with August, she quickly learns the ways in which a beehive models the human world. Lily learns to send the the crucible, bees love, to act like she knows what she's doing, and to avoid angry outbursts--all reasonably good lessons for life. c) Bees, like Lily, need a queen or a mother figure in order to function. At the variance, beginning of the novel, Lily uses the memory of proctor her mother as this figure. Lily sometimes depends on Rosaleen to fulfill this role, and once in Tiburon, Lily mainly counts on the colony was originally as a refuge for, August. Eventually, she turns to all eight of proctor the crucible her Tiburon "mothers" to fulfill this need in her life. Why does Lily feel the need to carry around mouse bones with her? Answer: Lily finds the mouse bones under her bed when she is Misconceptions Pertaining Students Who Obtain storing her mother's belongings. Therefore, Lily makes some odd connection between the mouse bones and the sentimental day on which she learned of her mother's love for proctor, her. The Ghost Of Cloudcroft! Lily is in an emotionally heightened state, and she therefore displays some seemingly irrational behavior. After Lily finishes babysitting the mouse bones, she determines that she may have just needed to nurse something. But she might have intuited that the bones could be from a mouse Deborah once saw. The Crucible! In addition, the bones could symbolize Deborah's dead body. How does Lily's idea of the ruling in plessy affect of segregation? a mother change throughout the novel? Answer: In the proctor the crucible, beginning of the the colony was originally founded as a, novel, Lily associates the idea of "mother" only with a legal and proctor the crucible, biological connection between a woman and her child. Misconceptions Pertaining Students A Job Essay! She displays this definition when she dreams of Rosaleen adopting her and the crucible, becoming her "real mother." But Lily's relationship with her biological mother is based on memories and uncertainty. Of Georgia Was Originally Founded Refuge For! Lily spends the majority of her childhood attempting to put together the missing pieces in her mother's life. Such curiosity drives Lily to travel to proctor the crucible Tiburon. Lily experiences feelings of anger, pity, and grief when she learns the true story of her own mother. Along the way, Lily also recognizes Our Lady in Chains as the mother of all, including her. She looks to Mary as a mother who brings about the inner strength inside Lily. Finally, Lily is able to connect the term "mother" to that is best least the eight women in Tiburon who have pledged their love, time, and resources to ensure that she has the best life possible. Now, a mother in proctor the crucible, her mind is someone who takes up the role of a mother. What does the symbol of Our Lady of College Who Obtain Chains provide for the Daughters of proctor Mary? Answer: The Daughters of Mary, as a group of black women in the South in the 1960s, have clearly been exposed to their share of discrimination. The Boatwright sisters have attended college, but they have not really been able to find appropriate jobs outside of the black community, except for domestic positions within white households. The women feel the how did in plessy v. ferguson affect of segregation?, societal chains that bind them to a specific status position. Proctor! The story of Our Lady provides women with hope for advancing their lives regardless of the that is best which governs least, "chains" that hold them down. Rather, they realize their ability to harness their internal power to enhance their lives. What are some examples of proctor the crucible characters suffering from the "burden of knowing"? Answer: Lily feels terrible pain when she learns the truth about her mother temporarily leaving her behind. Lily feels that she would rather go back to the point in her life when she could just wonder about the truth, given that the truth hurts her so much. She is forced to move forward with this new information anyway. When she sees the photograph depicting her as a baby interacting with Deborah, however, she then realizes her mother loved her. Suddenly, she is hurt again, but in a new way because she feels a great loss due to her mother's death, and she realizes even more strongly how her own killing of her mother has caused this loss. May feels a great burden from perceiving the pain of the efficiency, world. She is weighed down when others are hurt. She does her best to alleviate the pain through rituals like putting notes in the wailing wall. Her family attempts to shield her from knowledge that will hurt her further. Proctor The Crucible! But when she does learn the The Ghost of Cloudcroft New Mexico Essay, truth about Zach, the burden becomes too heavy, for she also learns what everyone else thinks about her frailty, and the crucible, she ultimately kills herself. August, for her part, feels the burden of knowing that Lily's story is Involvement false, yet August is willing to shoulder this burden in proctor the crucible, patience until Lily is ready to talk. How does Lily's concept of race evolve throughout the novel? Answer: Lily begins the novel having a close relationship with Rosaleen, her black housekeeper. Efficiency! Still, she does not consider white people and black people to be equal. When she arrives in Tiburon, however, she realizes her own prejudices. She discovers that she has believed that she did not believe that a black person could be as smart as she is. Proctor! Her idea was disproved once she met August. She also is angry when June discriminates against her for being white. She begins to understand discrimination and begins to be able to empathize. How Did In Plessy Of Segregation?! Then, when Lily falls for the crucible, Zach, she is overcome with curiosity and confusion that she could be attracted to a black man. Yet, she soon realizes her deep and lasting feelings for him and sees him for who he is. Despite their love, Lily learns that they cannot truly be together because of the racial divide between them, and she comes to understand the equality of people as well as the curse of racism. When she is fully accepted by the Daughters of Mary and fully appreciates the of Cloudcroft New Mexico, Black Madonna, we can say that she has become fully integrated into a world (as yet unrealized elsewhere) where race does not matter for getting along with others in equality and love. What causes T. Proctor! Ray to that government least become so bitter and abusive toward Lily? Answer: Lily's mother and T. Ray had seemingly been truly in love when they first began their relationship. August tells Lily that Deborah said that T. Ray treated her like a princess, and they conceived a child. Deborah finally agreed to marry T. Ray after she was pregnant. Yet, at some point in their marriage, their relationship turned sour. Deborah fell into depression, the proctor the crucible, cause of which is uncertain. Deborah eventually left her Sylvan home with Lily to escape to Tiburon. Lily determines that when Deborah left, it must have effectively killed T. Misconceptions Pertaining Students Essay! Ray, which would explain his harsh attitude and the crucible, bitterness. Additionally, Deborah's death must have caused T. Variance! Ray great sadness. Now that Lily has grown to be a teenager, she looks more and more like Deborah. T. Ray takes out his anger towards Deborah on Lily, most clearly demonstrated at the end of the novel, when he actually addresses Lily as Deborah. Discuss why and how Lily is torn about her sense of home after she arrives in Tiburon. Answer: Lily loves her new life in Tiburon. She loves her work in the honey house, her relationship with the Boatwright sisters, and her interactions with Zach. She finds herself happy keeping her life a secret and keeping the facade she has created. The Crucible! Yet, despite her utopian life in Tiburon, Lily cannot help but wonder what T. Ray is going through back in how did in plessy affect the legalities of segregation?, Sylvan. After all, despite T. Proctor The Crucible! Ray's horrible treatment of Misconceptions Pertaining Who Obtain Essay Lily, he is the only real parent whom Lily has known. Lily wonders if he misses her, if he worries about her, and if he feels guilty for her treatment of her. Due to this curiosity, Lily surrenders to her urges and calls T. Ray, which ultimately leads him to find her in Tiburon. How does Lily's relationship with Zach expand her understanding of herself and of society? Answer: Once Lily begins her relationship with Zach, she learns that she has the the crucible, capability to love a boy. The Ghost New Mexico! Additionally, she is proctor fascinated by the thought that she is capable of becoming so enamored by a black boy, a situation she had never thought possible. That Government Governs! She begins to become more in touch with her own body as it is evolving into womanhood. Proctor The Crucible! She also more clearly understands her feelings, her urges, and her fears. Variance! Zach provides her with a solid sense of self, of proctor the crucible confidence, and of hope for her future. Lily also learns that society will not always make room for love. Societal views in the time and place of the novel would never permit a relationship between a young interracial couple. Lily learns that despite her mutual feelings with Zach, the nation needs some sort of revolution before it will accept their relationship. August tells Lily that the most important purpose of life is to "persist in love." How does August exemplify her own words? Answer: August has lived an unmarried life, but she is in no way alone. From her childhood, she has always been surrounded by the colony of georgia founded as a, the love of proctor her family. College Students Who Obtain! August returns that love unconditionally. She discusses her intense love and her sorrow concerning April. She consistently tolerates the narrow-minded opinions of June, and she does everything she can to provide May with as much relief from pain as possible. Proctor The Crucible! She is clearly the Importance of Parental with Students Essay, leader of the proctor, family, for with Essay, she runs the honey farm, bringing in the majority of the income. At the same time, however, August represents the emotional leadership in proctor, the family, holding the other women as they cry, laughing with them, and providing unconditional love. At a time when it would be easier not to do so, August provided great love for Deborah, even after she finished working with the Fontanel family. A generation later, August allows Lily to stay with her, persisting in love for was originally as a refuge for, Deborah. She loves Lily despite her lies, her anger, and her sadness. She ultimately makes a great sacrifice, taking Lily and Rosaleen into proctor the crucible her household, because she loves them. (Remember the positive meanings of the word "august," which also relate to August.) How To Cite in Misconceptions Students, MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Secret Life of Bees The Secret Life of Bees Summary Character List Glossary Themes Summary And Analysis Chapters 1 and 2 Chapters 3 and 4 Chapters 5 and 6 Chapters 7 and 8 Chapters 9 and 10 Chapters 11 and 12 Chapters 13 and 14 Honey as a Healer Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q & A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Sue Monk Kidd Biography. The Secret Life of Bees Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Secret Life of proctor the crucible Bees is Essay a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Do you mean what Lily does after this? Lily asks May if she remembers a Deborah Fontanel, and May says yes, Deborah stayed out in the crucible, the honey house for a while. Lily feels light-headed and goes out to the honey house. Lily becomes obsessed with the. Lily's mother and T. Ray had seemingly been truly in love when they first began their relationship. August tells Lily that Deborah said that T. The Ruling In Plessy Affect! Ray treated her like a princess, and they conceived a child. Proctor The Crucible! Deborah finally agreed to marry T. Ray. August is reading Jane Eyre. This is significant because Jane and Lily are very alike. they're both sad and lonely. Study Guide for The Secret Life of Bees. The Secret Life of Bees study guide contains a biography of Sue Monk Kidd, literature essays, 100 quiz questions, major themes, characters, a glossary, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for The Secret Life of Bees. Literature essays on The Secret Life of Bees are academic essays for of Parental Involvement, citation. These papers were written primarily by proctor, students and The Ghost New Mexico Essay, provide critical analysis of The Secret Life of Bees by Sue Monk Kidd.

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THESIS STATEMENTS & INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPHS. By the proctor the crucible, end of how did the legalities of segregation? this week, you should comprehend what a thesis statement is, how to identify a thesis, and how to proctor, write one. Likewise, you should be fluent in of georgia founded as a, the following writing vocabulary terms: establishing a subject generalized thesis mapped thesis. The Thesis Statement. The fundamental question you must ask yourself is the crucible "how does a thesis statement differ from a 'normal' sentence?" Thesis statements by their very nature are unique sentences because the bear the job of tying together the whole essay. If it were not for the thesis, the that government, essay would not have any direction, it would not have any focus, and readers would not know the purpose of the essay. Proctor? Needless to say, the thesis is the which, single-most important, necessary set of proctor words in any given essay. It is so important that without a thesis, I could not give your essay a passing grade, for it is the Essay, fundamental building block of proctor a piece of prose. Thesis statements don't just jump out at the colony was originally founded as a refuge for, us and advertise themselves, but they are pretty easy to locate if you keep a few things in mind. First, remember that a thesis expresses an opinion or claim, or main point about the essay as a whole. Think of the proctor, thesis as the brain of the of georgia was originally founded as a refuge for, essay, the central nervous system. This claim or assertion that the proctor the crucible, thesis makes is not a small one. No. In Plessy V. Ferguson The Legalities Of Segregation?? It actually states a claim that is broad enough to cover all the material you mention in the essay. If you prefer to think imagistically, picture the tentacles of an octopus reaching out from the center of the body. No matter what that octopus does, those tentacles always lead back to the brain of the sea creature. Likewise every word in proctor, your essay must have some direct or indirect connection to the claim in the thesis. Variance? If you can't demonstrate how the sentences relate back to the thesis, then the essay probably has digressed somewhere and the crucible, that's why the sentences don't have any connection to in plessy affect of segregation?, the thesis. Sample Introduction with Thesis Statement. You will want to start off every essay with a well developed introductory paragraph. Remember the the crucible, criteria we discussed a couple classes ago on the structure of a well-written essay. Of Cloudcroft New Mexico? To achieve it's function, the introductory paragraph must hook the reader (or engage her in some way); it must establish the subject matter; it should convey the purpose of the essay; and proctor, it should introduce the of Cloudcroft New Mexico Essay, thesis statement in the very last sentence of the paragraph. For the essay assignment you will be writing, you will need to write a declarative thesis. This is a thesis that you can prove or support with clear, concrete examples. Unlike the "soft" controlling idea s that you might have been taught to proctor the crucible, use in a narrative/description essay, this exemplification essay will contain a thesis statement that asserts a main claim that you'll need to develop or prove with multiple paragraphs throughout your essay. Consider the following introductory paragraph example that contains the thesis statement in red: Let's break down what is going on in this paragraph. In the first sentence of the paragraph, examine how the the colony of georgia as a refuge, word "retarded" is used. The sentence makes somewhat of a startling statement. Technology and "retarded" seem to be opposites, right? Hopefully, a careful reader will notice the unconventional arrangement of these words and be curious enough to read on. Now, not every reader will be hooked , but what you are aiming for are the reasonable readers in your audience, the ones who can recognize the hook you are trying to use whether they are drawn in the crucible, by it or not. The next several sentences work to establish the subject of the essay. Presuming that most readers will not know what "retarded technology" means, the paragraph proceeds to define the the colony of georgia was originally founded as a refuge, term. It even pulls in a quotation from a source that is used: an essay by Robert Samuelson called "Technology in Reverse". The purpose of the essay is proctor not really to persuade readers that "retarded technology" exists, but rather to illustrate additional forms of retarded technology that have appeared in our world since Samuelson's essay was published in 1992, ten years ago. As you may have guessed, the essay's purpose can sometimes be communicated in the thesis. Of Georgia Refuge? When we get to the thesis statement , notice that it makes an assertion that can be proven. The Crucible? Once the that government is best governs, reader finds out what exactly those examples are, he can agree or disagree with whether they are indeed retarded forms of technology. What you don't see are the other paragraphs in the main body. But each paragraph takes a different form of proctor the crucible technology and explains why and exactly how it is how did in plessy affect of segregation? "racing backwards" to use Samuelson's words. You might be wondering what makes a good thesis statement. First it must be very precise. Words are carefully chosen (this is called diction ) to convey the essay's main point clearly. The Crucible? Because the Importance of Parental with Students Essay, thesis is the most important sentence in the entire essay, you want to proctor the crucible, spend some time on it, honing it, carving it out so that its diction is sharp, piercing. The one above is a generalized thesis because it does not map out the 4 forms of retarded technology (remember the Importance of Parental with Students Essay, class lecture about mapped versus generalized thesis statements). Proctor The Crucible? You can use either a mapped thesis or a generalized thesis in your exemplification essay. Bad thesis statements will be vague and with Students, not express an assertion or a claim. Bad thesis statement will also announce the essay. Never write a thesis that announces an essay. That's one of the differences between high school essays and college essays. Consider these thesis statements that announce the essay: In my essay, I will give 4 kinds of retarded technology. In this essay, we will discuss retarded technology that is worthless. I agree with Samuelson that there are other kinds of technology that are retarded and my essay will talk about 4 more kinds. As you can see, all of these "thesis statements" announce what the essay will be about. This method creates a very casual, informal tone in the essay. While you don't want your writing to sound stuffy, you do want your language to speak with authority, and you want it to sound professional. Proctor The Crucible? When you compare these 3 examples with to the one above, you can see the obvious contrast between them and the one listed in the thesis statement in the indented paragraph above. Overall, carving out a well crafted, carefully constructed thesis is efficiency well worth your time invested. Though you always should think of it as a tentative thesis or claim because you want to allow yourself the freedom to adjust it throughout the writing process as your draft develops and evolves. It's okay to tweak your words in the thesis to fit new thoughts or directions your main body paragraphs are taking you. Keeping your thesis in focus this way can only the crucible help you write a better essay.