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Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate | H10CuO9S | ChemSpiderAbstract'This paper presents a design and analysis of a compact dual band square fractal antenna designed on FR4 substrate. The antenna resonates at 2.23 GHz and 6.48 GHz compared to conventional antenna resonating at 2.83 GHz. The designed fractal antenna shows improved impedance bandwidth compared to conventional antenna at for copper ii sulfate resonating frequencies. The azimuthal radiation pattern of the antenna at 0 degree elevation angle is found to be omni directional at all the resonant frequencies. Description Of Freud’s Theory! The antenna can be designed for its use in many wireless bands. Keywords'Fractal antenna, reflection coefficient, compact, multiband. The multichannel communications are widely exploited for multimedia applications - with the development in wireless communication technology. For example; around 1985, we were having only Doordarshan in India with 1 or 2 channels for TV reception requiring very less antenna bandwidth whereas in 2011-12, we are entertained by at least 100 of channels through many service provider by a single antenna. Chemical Formula! Further, these services are also received at compact and participant, handheld equipments like laptop terminals, tablet PCs, mobile or cell phone terminals. These need antennas to be small in size and multiband in nature with desiring bandwidth and gain. Chemical Formula! Some of the wireless applications are listed in Table 1. Also, the wireless local area network (WLAN) service is increased its demands for telecommunication systems -. Fractal antennas are reported for their applications in of Freud’s Psychodynamic compact, multiband wireless communication. Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975 coined the formula for copper ii sulfate, word fractal which is called as fractus in Latin language, meaning "broken" or "fractured. 'A fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be split into parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced-size copy of the whole" , , . A fractal often has applications in antennas for multiband wireless communication, image processing for data compression, packaging, mechanics (fracture mechanics is a widely studied subject by observation, mechanical engineers) etc. Chemical! The use of self similarity property in fractal antennas can achieve multiband characteristics whereas space filling property in 5 different in a draft these antennas can be used for formula miniaturization. Fractal antennas have been reported for compact, multiband and broadband applications , [6-7], , . This paper presents the Description Psychodynamic, design and analysis of the square antenna (i.e. a conventional patch antenna) perturbed to behave as compact and multiband fractal antenna using iterative fractal technique. TABLE 1 FREQUENCY BANDS FOR A FEW POPULAR WIRELESS APPLICATIONS - Wireless Applications Frequency Band (MHz) 2G 800/900 1800/1900. Wireless Communication Service 2305-2320 / Satellite Digital Radio 2320-2680. Distribution Service (MMDS) 2150 -2680. DCS ' 1800 1710-1880. PCS ' 1900 1850-1990. IMT-200 / UMTS 1885-2200. ISM Band I (Cordless Phone 1G WLAN) ISM Band II ( Bluetooth 802.11b WLAN) 902-928. Lower LTE (long term evolution) bands. Upper LTE bands 790'960. II. DESIGN OF ANTENNA. First, a square patch of dimension, L(length) = W (width) = 23 mm has been designed on FR4 substrate material with dielectric constant ( ??r ) 4.3 and thickness (h) 1.56 mm. The size of the substrate is chemical formula for copper ii sulfate, 625 sq. mm backed by winesburg ohio, finite ground plane of same size as shown in Fig. 1. To design the proposed fractal antenna, a slot of dimension L = W = 13.861 mm has been generated in the square patch of dimensions, L = W = 23 mm. Chemical Formula Ii Sulfate! This slot is space filled using a gap ( 4.5 mm) coupled small square patch of dimension L = W = 9.351 mm. The designed self similar fractal antenna has been shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 1. Design of conventional antenna. Fig. Which Least! 2. Design of first iterated fractal antenna. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS. The comparative reflection loss plot of square patch antenna i.e. the conventional antenna (Fig. 1) and first iteration fractal antenna (Fig. Chemical Formula For Copper Ii Sulfate! 2) has been shown in Fig. 3. It has been observed that although the size of the conventional and fractal antenna are identical, but the resonance frequency, 2.35 GHz of the first iterated fractal antenna is less than 2.83 GHz that of the conventional antenna. The reason for Description Essay lowering of resonance frequency is increased length of current path on for copper ii sulfate patch (L)  due to slot. As shown in Fig. 2, the of Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory Essay, first iterated fractal antenna has two square patches separated by a gap which resonate independently ignoring the for copper ii sulfate, mutual coupling between them. Characteristics Of Hamlet! This fractal antenna has two resonant frequencies 2.35 GHz and for copper ii sulfate, 6.46 GHz, first due to outer square ring and second due to inner square ring as shown in winesburg ohio Fig. 4. In addition to these two resonance frequencies, a spurious second resonance is observed due to outer square ring at 4.14 GHz. As shown in Fig. 5, square patch antenna with a square slot shows maximum reflections compared to space filled first iterated square patch fractal antenna. This shows the importance of space filling geometry in chemical for copper ii sulfate fractal antenna. The resonance frequencies of dual band first iterated fractal antenna can be found using following empirical formula . f1 = c / 2 (' ??eff) * L' (1) Where, L' = L + W2 = 36. 861 mm and L'' = '2 * W3 = 13.224 mm, are average lengths of the current paths for Psychodynamic Theory first & second resonance and L = 23 mm, W2 = 13.861mm & W3 = 9.351 mm. These relations may be used for designing the formula for copper ii sulfate, antenna. Fig. 3. Comparative reflection loss plot of conventional and characteristics of hamlet, fractal antenna. Fig. 4. Comparative reflection loss plot of conventional and fractal antenna showing dual band characteristics. Fig. 5. Comparative reflection loss plot of square slotted and space filled fractal antenna. Fig. For Copper Ii Sulfate! 6. Comparative real impedance plot of the antennas. Fig. Participant Sociology! 7. Comparative impedance plot of the conventional antenna. Fig. 8. Comparative impedance plot of the fractal antenna. The comparative impedance characteristics of these antennas are shown in Fig. 6, 7 and 8 to depict multiband characteristics of the fractal antenna. It is seen that impedance bandwidth of the fractal antenna is increased compared to the conventional antenna (Fig. 6). These antennas are resonant where the impedance of the excitation (50 ??) and the antenna found a good matching. For Copper Ii Sulfate! As seen in Fig. 7 and 8, near the resonance the reactance exhibited by the antenna is Description of Freud’s Theory, minimum reducing the stored reactive power. Radiation Patterns: The realized gain radiation patterns of the conventional and formula for copper ii sulfate, fractal antenna at resonating frequencies have been simulated and are shown in azimuth and characteristics of hamlet, elevation plane in Fig. 9, 10 and 11. The similar radiation pattern has been obtained in fractal antenna at both the formula for copper, resonant frequencies. In azimuth plane at winesburg ohio theta 0 degree, the conventional antenna as well as fractal antenna exhibits an chemical omnidirectional radiation pattern at Essay all resonant frequencies. Chemical Formula! At 90 degree elevation a conventional antenna exhibits two major lobes. These lobes get fractured in fractal antenna at 2.35 GHz and 6.46 GHz compared to a conventional antenna. In elevation plane, it is seen that the characteristics of hamlet, beam width gets reduced in ii sulfate fractal antenna at 2.35 GHz and 6.46 GHz compared to conventional antenna at 2.83 GHz. The maximum realized gain of 7 dB at participant 2.83 GHz in for copper ii sulfate conventional antenna at 0 degree elevation in azimuth plane is noted whereas it is 6.798 dB and 8 dB at 2.23 GHz and 6.48 GHz respectively in fractal antenna. Fig. 9. Realized gain pattern at phi = 0 and 90 degree and theta = 0 and 90 degree for government conventional antenna at 2.83 GHz. Fig. 10. Realized gain pattern at phi = 0 and 90 degree and theta = 0 and 90 degree for fractal antenna at 2.35 GHz. Fig. 11. Chemical Formula For Copper! Realized gain pattern at phi = 0 and 90 degree and theta = 0 and 90 degree for fractal antenna at 6.46 GHz. The square fractal patch antenna shows multiband behavior due to self similar properties in winesburg ohio antenna compared to its conventional counterparts. The space filling properties in the antenna make the antenna compact and minimize the reflection loss. For Copper Ii Sulfate! The antenna can be useful for winesburg ohio wireless applications in varying frequency bands. I am thankful to Prof. R. B. For Copper Ii Sulfate! Dhumale (Guide), Dr. S. D. Lokhande (Co-guide), Dr. A. Characteristics Of Hamlet! D. Jadhav (PG Head PG Program) and Principal, SCOE Pune for chemical for copper ii sulfate their valuable Guidance.  J. Kim, C. Yang, T. Sociology! Yun, and ii sulfate, C. Jung, 'Multimode Multiband (VHF / UHF /L / 802.11 a/b) Antennas for Broadcasting and Telecommunication Services', IEEE Antennas and is best which least, Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 2011.  Cheng-Hung Kang, Sung-Jung Wu, and Jenn-Hwan Tarng, 'A Novel Folded UWB Antenna for Wireless Body Area Network', IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 2, February 2012.  Homayoon Oraizi and Shahram Hedayati, 'Circularly Polarized Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using the Square and Giuseppe Peano Fractals', IEEE Transactions On Antennas and Propogation, Vol. 60, No. 7, July 2012.  A. Goldsmith, 'Wireless Communications', Chapter1- Overview of Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press.  Balanis, Antenna Theory and Analysis, John Wiley publications.  Hattan F. Abutarboush et al., 'A Reconfigurable Wideband and chemical for copper ii sulfate, Multiband Antenna Using Dual-Patch Elements for Theory Compact Wireless Devices', IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 2009.  Leonardo Lizzi, Federico Viani, Edoardo Zeni, and Andrea Massa, 'A DVBH /GSM/UMTS Planar Antenna for Multimode Wireless Devices' , IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 1, January 2012.  Fong Chen et al.,'Bowtie-Feed Broadband Monopole Antenna for Laptop Applications', IEEE Antennas and chemical ii sulfate, Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 2011.  B. Government! B. Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, New York: W.H. Freeman, (1983).  D. H. Chemical Formula Ii Sulfate! Werner, Raj Mitra, Frontiers in Electromagnetics, IEEE Press Series on Microwave Technology and RF. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and winesburg ohio, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and chemical for copper ii sulfate, you could have your customised Business work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Business essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of that governs least this page in your own work, you need to ii sulfate, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Design and Analysis of Compact Multiband Fractal Antenna . Available from: <http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/compact-multiband-fractal-antenna.php> [30-09-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on of Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory Essay the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.
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Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate | H10CuO9S | ChemSpider
Nov 10, 2017 Chemical formula for copper ii sulfate, order essay paper -