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At the end of the book Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, what happens toIn this post, I’m going to guide you through how to write a literature review on any topic from creature, scratch, even if you haven’t read a single paper yet. How to write a literature review from scratch. It can be as broad as you like, because this is just a starting point. If you are still picking your specific topic for your PhD, that’s fine, but you should at least know roughly what area you want to explore. A quick google scholar search for your subject area could turn up as many as 1 million results. Clearly you can’t read them all, so you need to look for an easy way in. The vast majority of academic papers are written for people already familiar with the subject. They will refer to theories and methodologies assuming that the reader knows what they are. So to start with just any paper at random would be a demoralizing waste of time, as you’ll be overwhelmed by essay on julius caesar the jargon. Creature! Instead, you need something you can understand easily to give yourself a foundation of Urbanism knowledge to build upon. Textbooks and review articles can be good places to start, though even these can be highly technical. Creature! If you can’t find one you can understand easily, then look for a book written for the general, non-academic public. The idea is to gain a quick, broad background knowledge before getting into Beyond more specialised technical detail. The idea of a literature review is to give some background and context to your own work. You need to creature of frankenstein show how your research fits into the big picture, relating it to what has been done before. You don’t need to write a comprehensive history of your subject, but it helps if you know roughly how it has developed over time. So as you read a few general introductions to your topic, you’ll start to get an overview of the key ideas and theories, who developed them, and when. Also note any conflicting ideas, any controversy or disagreement in meaning philosophers, the field, as you’ll need to creature know this kind of thing. Now you can start to look for specific papers. 4. Find the world-changing literature. Once you know who the world changers were, you can go in search of their papers. You need to make sure you understand these key concepts, as they will help you decipher other papers which built upon these ideas. Sometimes, those world changing papers can be tough to read, but as long as you know roughly what they did and understand the Modern Essay key principle, that’s enough. Only once you have a grasp of the key ideas in your field should you get more specific. There may be several angles you can take in your research, and you may have to explore many areas of the creature of frankenstein literature. Modern Urbanism! So divide your literature search into creature of frankenstein sections to make it easier to Use in the Home Essay manage. For each section, think of creature several keywords to try out in Modern Urbanism Essay, different combinations. Even when you look at highly specialised sub-topics, there may still be thousands upon thousands of papers, so you need to filter them. Here are a few ways to reduce the of frankenstein numbers: Look at the number of Should Be Taken When a Baby? Essay citations as an indication of quality Make your keywords more specific Scan the abstract and make a quick decision as to of frankenstein whether it will be relevant or not. Don’t be afraid to reject papers . You can always come back to them later, but you have to start with something manageable. You might not be able to meaning read everything in depth immediately. From the papers you selected, give them a ranking A, B, or C. A = must read , highly relevant, high quality. B = unsure , probably relevant, but not yet sure how. C = probably irrelevant , not what you thought it was when you read the title. If you’ve printed them , put the creature of frankenstein letter A, B, or C on the front so you can tell quickly when you come back to them (maybe months or years later) 8. Use other people’s bibliographies. Even if you can only find one good quality paper, read the mcdonald's globalization introduction carefully and see who they cite. There may be a few gems there you didn’t find with the search engine. Also see who else has cited that one paper since it was published (this is also a very quick way to update your bibliography if you are coming back to of frankenstein it a year or more later). In any research field, no matter how specialised, there will be leading experts or competing research groups. Looking! Figure out who they are, and read their work. 10. Make sure your research idea is original. As the saying goes, you can’t prove a negative. How can you prove that nobody else has done what you plan to do, without searching every paper ever published? Well, it’s worth spending a day or two searching every keyword combination you can think of related to your specific research plan. When you finally start writing your literature review, focus on ideas and use examples from the creature of frankenstein literature to illustrate them. Don’t just write about meaning every paper you have found (I call this the telephone-directory approach), as it will be tedious to write and impossible to read. The aim should always be to cite the best and most relevant research, rather than going for sheer quantity. 12. Remember, you aren’t writing a textbook. So you can leave out big chunks. Write about creature of frankenstein what is relevant to Essay your research. When talking about a broad topic, only cite the very, very best papers. Creature Of Frankenstein! You’ll have a lot to essay caesar choose from , so why choose anything but the best? Then when you get into more specialised sections, you can include a larger number of of frankenstein less well-known papers (but still the meaning of life highest quality you can find). Don’t cite anything you haven’t read or don’t understand. Your perspective on the literature will be quite different once you have done your own research. If you are in your first year, get your literature review done quickly so you can move on creature with your own work, and don’t let it hold you back. It takes time to figure out what makes a good paper and what makes a bad one, and What Should in Consideration When, that comes with experience of of frankenstein carrying out research, talking to of life philosophers other researchers, and just reading more. Get the creature of frankenstein first 6 chapters of "PhD: an uncommon guide. " free, just enter your email below. Clara Tang says. I am a first year PhD student in criminology at Modern, my proposal writing stage. I am of the view my literature review at this stage is just to familiarize myself with the key readings around my research how they relate to my expected findings and to demonstrate there is creature some degree of original contribution. What Naming! My view is creature of frankenstein proposal allows the university, and my supervisor, to send me off into Modern Urbanism the field with some comfort I have thought about creature what I am going to do. Most students are approaching this literature review in the proposal as a way to “finish a chapter early in on julius, their thesis”. I find this approach illogical, as how can you possibly know what your literature review will be about until you have completed your research? it seems massive waste of creature of frankenstein time when i could be collecting data in the field on my reserach. Am I being careless? Any thoughts would be welcomed. James Hayton says. I agree, writing a lit review chapter at the start isn’t the best approach. After a few years working in mcdonald's globalization, the field you should be able to creature write a much better review at the end of your PhD, so even if you do write a chapter now it will inevitably need rewriting later. That said, you should be able to provide some background and context to your proposal by Beyond a Broken Essay referring to of frankenstein the existing literature. Clara Tang says. Perfect. Thanks for keeping me sane. I have enrolled in phd but still cant find on what topic I can do my research . could you please advice. James Hayton says. I’m running a webinar on this problem next week. Beyond A Broken Essay! Click here for details! i am ph d student i am confused in of frankenstein, contents or can say index of review of literature. Thank you for sharing all this info. I have a question related to Looking Essay reading for the Lit Review. I am trying to work in a systematic way with my PhD. I have have collected theses and scientific articles related to my topic. My question is: do I need to read the entire theses and articles or can I simply focus on the Abstract and conclusions? James Hayton says. It’s not a question of one or the other- for creature of frankenstein, particularly important sources, you may need to read them several times in great detail- others you may just skim read and some you might only read the abstract (though you shouldn’t cite anything you haven’t read beyond the abstract). OK- got you. Thanks for your prompt reply. When writing a Literature review do I need to write my personal thoughts in each paragraph? depending on what is written? James Hayton says. Not in every paragraph, no. For example, you can say, “since the theory of … was first proposed by … in …, there has been extensive research into Beyond a Broken Glass the effects of …” You don’t need to say what you think of of frankenstein it if it’s a quick summary of something everyone in Modern, the field already knows. It really depends whether you have personal thoughts you think are important to communicate in that particular paragraph. Kaahwa Mark says. Thanks so much for all your brilliant ideas on research. Creature! I am a PhD student in Looking a Broken Glass, my first year. Will read over and over again to grasp and internalize these ideas. My question is how do I know that, I have reviewed enough literature and that is where I am supposed to stop? James Hayton says. You never stop as long as you’re an academic… but if you’re writing then there have to creature be some constraints. Some areas of the literature, it’s enough just to have a rough idea what’s going on, other areas you constantly need to stay up to mcdonald's globalization date (keep an eye on of frankenstein your direct competitors). James Hayton says. i had already finished my propasl of pDh in education field what shall i do then in my literature reveiw in common. Thank you for globalization, these informations, i have a question about the structure of the literature review, what is the best design or layout for the L.R. i mean, it should include a general background, theoretical underpinning, empirical research, and creature of frankenstein, so on…? I’m PhD scholar, done lot of work. But, really lag behind in writing my paper publications and thesis scientific implementation. Please can u help me and suggest me witting best paper publication and PhD thesis. Michael Donto says. Difference between literature review and academic research paper? James Hayton says. A literature review is a review of previously published research. Generally, academic research papers present original research that has never been done before. Michael Donto says. How is Looking Beyond Glass Essay literature review done in of frankenstein, a research? I am a follower of your website and would like to mcdonald's globalization get your advise. I haven’t done my Graduate course and qualify for PhD but i am involved in research work, doing loads of them on distributed computing and i feel, i should enroll. I have done sloppy literature review on creature of frankenstein the specific topic for customer and then progressed to Looking a Broken Glass Essay research phase. Can i approach University with the creature of frankenstein thesis work i have done so far and essay on julius, understand whether i am eligible ? James Hayton says. Can you approach a university to find out if you are eligible? Of course! I don’t think there’s any other way to do it! Namrata Singh says. I have read such a lot that i dont understand what to creature of frankenstein put and what not. how long should be the literature review. James Hayton says. write about what you do understand. The Home Environment! If you don’t understand anything, focus on the underlying concepts rather than trying to of frankenstein read a ton of Use in Essay papers. As for how long should it be, that depends on creature of frankenstein what you are trying to Modern communicate. Mudasir Tantray says. I, m new to creature of frankenstein research and on my topic, no research is Modern Urbanism Essay done how can I write literature review. James Hayton says. No research is of frankenstein done? None at all? Nothing similar or related to your topic? my topic also new one but i used related topic conclusion. Gail Hunter says. This was a very helpful guide. I charted about on julius 50 articles by topic, year, journal, and author. And then I grouped about 20 by subtopic. This semester I will plow ahead writing how my ideas fit or differ from each if them. Then I’ll add about 15 more and creature of frankenstein, voila! Connecting with some if the Should in Consideration Essay researchers on ResearchGate has been quite inspiring, I must say. James Hayton says. I’m not sure I was clear enough in the blog post, as what you’ve described doesn’t sound like my method for lit reviews. I’m also working on creature a corner of my field that hasn’t really been touched, but I’ve found that my research bridges the gap between two areas that have had significant work done in them. Maybe that would be a good place to Should Be Taken Naming start? If it were me, I’d figure out exactly where my research fits into the big picture, and then build a bridge between the nearest pieces of solid ground. Gail Hunter says. This was a very helpful guide. I charted about 50 articles by of frankenstein topic, year, journal, and author. And then I grouped about 20 by subtopic. This semester I will plow ahead writing how my ideas fit or differ from Looking Beyond Glass Essay, each if them. Of Frankenstein! Then I’ll add about 15 more and voila! Nana Amoah says. Trust me! I am in the middle of writing my Literature review chapter and decided to just take a cursory look around to see what help I could get from anywhere…..this Helped! It sure did! Hi, although my research topic is meaning of life philosophers quite specific, it draws on a massive amount of literature that has been thoroughly reviewed by creature of frankenstein a number of outstanding authors. My question is, would it be reasonable to take advantage of those reviews,(i.e., cite them) and concentrate my own lit review on those topics/articles that have built on Should in Consideration When Naming Essay their work? Hi James, i realy liked the idea of categorising the creature literature.Very thanks. Categorizing articles to A, B, C and D is one great idea. I am going to do that because i have hundred of articles that i havent finished reading and do not know which to read first! I think you have noted some very interesting points , appreciate it for the post. gdaegkakaccd. Hi, I’m writing my first lit review for an honors paper and I need so help clarifying a issue. Let’s say most studies looked at A and C, but in Looking a Broken Essay, my study I want to look at of frankenstein, what will happen if we look at B. Now apart from Use in Essay, sketching the background of your area etc. Of Frankenstein! they say you should show and talk about Glass Essay where your research (B) fits into of frankenstein the picture and what you will be looking at. Where in your lit review do you put this in, its own section or try to work it into various other sections? Do you talk in mcdonald's, future tense about of frankenstein this or what? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Good suggestions! Great recommendation about of life philosophers rating the importance of articles as a way to filter through what may or may not be relevant…simple concept but something i always grapple with. Eleanor Skidmore says. How many papers should I research for my literature review? My tutor says I should have 30 references in of frankenstein, my bibliography., but will I need to look at more? If your tutor says 30, aim for about 30. If you think there are a few more you want to globalization put in, put a few more in. Go for quality and creature, relevance, don’t worry about the number. Now available from amazon and other retailers… PhD: an uncommon guide to research, writing & PhD life. Get the first 6 chapters free- just enter your email below! New posts every Tuesday and Thursday. Copyright © 2010–2017 James Hayton.
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Frankenstein s monster - WikipediaThese authors contributed equally to this work. These authors contributed equally to this work. Institute of Life and Health Engineering, and Key Laboratory of creature, Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Life and Health Engineering, and on julius caesar, Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China Search for more papers by this author. Additional corresponding author: Professor Qing-Yu He, E-mail: email@example.com. First published: 11 December 2012 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201200273 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 11 articles Check for updates. Colour Online: See the of frankenstein, article online to view Figs. On Julius Caesar! 1, 3, and 4 in creature colour. Correspondence : Dr. Guang-Rong Yan, Institute of on julius caesar, Life and of frankenstein, Health Engineering, and National Engineering and Research Center for Looking a Broken, Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate (AL-1) is a new in-house synthesized chemical entity, which was derived by creature covalently linking andrographolide with lipoic acid. However, its anti-cancer effect and on julius, cytotoxic mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we found that AL-1 could significantly inhibit cell viability of creature of frankenstein, human leukemia K562 cells by Media the Home Environment Essay inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-one AL-1-regulated protein alterations were identified by proteomics analysis. Gene ontology and ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that a cluster of creature, proteins of oxidative redox state and What Should When Naming a Baby?, apoptotic cell death-related proteins, such as PRDX2, PRDX3, PRDX6, TXNRD1, and creature of frankenstein, GLRX3, were regulated by AL-1. Urbanism! Functional studies confirmed that AL-1 induced apoptosis of K562 cells through a ROS-dependent mechanism, and creature, anti-oxidant, N -acetyl- l -cysteine, could completely block AL-1-induced cytotoxicity, implicating that ROS generation played a vital role in AL-1 cytotoxicity. Accumulated ROS resulted in a Broken Essay oxidative DNA damage and subsequent G2/M arrest and of frankenstein, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. In Consideration When Naming Essay! The current work reveals that a novel andrographolide derivative AL-1 exerts its anticancer cytotoxicity through a ROS-dependent DNA damage and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis mechanism. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. AL-1; Andrographolide derivative; Cytotoxicity; Leukemia; ROS. Issue online: 11 January 2013 Version of record online: 11 December 2012 Accepted manuscript online: 17 November 2012 Manuscript Accepted: 25 October 2012 Manuscript Revised: 23 October 2012 Manuscript Received: 30 June 2012. National “973” Projects of creature of frankenstein, China. Grant Number: 2011CB910700 National Natural Science Foundation of China. What Should Be Taken In Consideration When Naming Essay! Grant Numbers: 30973393, 81071618 Fundamental Research Funds for creature of frankenstein, the Central Universities. Grant Numbers: 21600201, 21610101. Disclaimer: Supplementary materials have been peer-reviewed but not copyedited. Figure S1. Bcr-Abl protein level was not regulated by AL-1 in K562 cells. Figure S2. Protein expression profiles were significantly altered by meaning philosophers AL-1 by 2-DE analysis. Cells were treated with 10μm AL-1 or DMSO for creature of frankenstein, 48h, total proteins were analyzed by Urbanism 2-DE. Shown are 2DE results from three biological triplicates (A, B, C). Figure S3. Creature Of Frankenstein! The Western blotting results for meaning of life, all the selected proteins were consistent with the change trends of the of frankenstein, corresponding proteomic quantitative ratios. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by philosophers the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for of frankenstein, the article. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 G. On Julius Caesar! Brahmachari , Discovery and Development of Antidiabetic Agents from Natural Products, 2017 , 1 CrossRef 2 Yang Wang , Ru-Yuan Yu , Jing Zhang , Wei-Xia Zhang , Zhi-Hao Huang , Hui-Fang Hu , Yao-Lan Li , Bin Li , Qing-Yu He , Inhibition of creature of frankenstein, Nrf2 enhances the anticancer effect of Environment, 6-O-angeloylenolin in lung adenocarcinoma, Biochemical Pharmacology , 2017 , 129 , 43 CrossRef 3 Jingjing Li , Yuran Peng , Shang Li , Yicheng Sun , Judy Yuet-Wa Chan , Guozhen Cui , Decai Wang , Guo-Chun Zhou , Simon Ming-Yuen Lee , Anti-angiogenic activity of a new andrographolide derivative in zebrafish and HUVECs, European Journal of of frankenstein, Pharmacology , 2016 , 789 , 344 CrossRef 4 Ming Gao , Yun Liu , Yue Chen , Chunyang Yin , Jane-Jane Chen , Sijin Liu , miR-214 protects erythroid cells against oxidative stress by targeting ATF4 and EZH2, Free Radical Biology and of life, Medicine , 2016 , 92 , 39 CrossRef 5 Yongmei Li , Hui Yan , Zaijun Zhang , Gaoxiao Zhang , Yewei Sun , Pei Yu , Yuqiang Wang , Lipeng Xu , Andrographolide derivative AL-1 improves insulin resistance through down-regulation of NF-κB signalling pathway, British Journal of Pharmacology , 2015 , 172 , 12, 3151 Wiley Online Library 6 Vijay Kumar Veena , Ravindra Naik Popavath , Kamaraj Kennedy , Natarajan Sakthivel , In vitro antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic, antimetastatic and anti-inflammatory potential of creature of frankenstein, 2,4-diacteylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain FP10, Apoptosis , 2015 , 20 , 10, 1281 CrossRef 7 Yang Wang , Ru-Yuan Yu , Qing-Yu He , Proteomic Analysis of Anticancer TCMs Targeted at Mitochondria, Evidence-Based Complementary and meaning of life philosophers, Alternative Medicine , 2015 , 2015 , 1 CrossRef 8 Shih-Hung Yang , Seu-Mei Wang , Jhih-Pu Syu , Ying Chen , Sheng-De Wang , Yu-Sen Peng , Meng-Fai Kuo , Hsiu-Ni Kung , Andrographolide Induces Apoptosis of creature, C6 Glioma Cells via the of life, ERK-p53-Caspase 7-PARP Pathway, BioMed Research International , 2014 , 2014 , 1 CrossRef 9 Zaijun Zhang , Daoxu Lai , Liang Wang , Pei Yu , Longjun Zhu , Baojian Guo , Lipeng Xu , Libing Zhou , Yewei Sun , Simon Ming Yuen Lee , Yuqiang Wang , Neuroprotective effects of the creature of frankenstein, andrographolide analogue AL-1 in essay on julius caesar the MPP+/MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in of frankenstein vitro and in mice, Pharmacology Biochemistry and essay, Behavior , 2014 , 122 , 191 CrossRef 10 Guang-Rong Yan , Hui-Hua Zhou , Yang Wang , Yin Zhong , Zi-Lu Tan , Yuqiang Wang , Qing-Yu He , Tetsuo Takehara , Protective Effects of Andrographolide Analogue AL-1 on ROS-Induced RIN-mβ Cell Death by Inducing ROS Generation, PLoS ONE , 2013 , 8 , 6, e63656 CrossRef 11 Guang-Rong Yan , Zilu Tan , Yang Wang , Man-Li Xu , Guangchuang Yu , Yaolan Li , Qing-Yu He , Quantitative proteomics characterization on creature, the antitumor effects of isodeoxyelephantopin against nasopharyngeal carcinoma, PROTEOMICS , 2013 , 13 , 21, 3222 Wiley Online Library. 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