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Yes-Buddhism Teaches Forgiveness! | Metta RefugeTorture can be defined as, ‘the officially sanctioned infliction of How Buddhism Anger and Forgiveness Essay intense suffering, aimed at forcing someone to do or say something against his or her will.’ (Rodley, 2000: 7) Under international law it is illegal to fiscal use torture in any situation whatsoever. Although torture undoubtedly continues throughout the world, the moral argument prohibiting it was won during the enlightenment and the debate was closed by twentieth century international legal prohibitions. However, the question of torture has resurfaced in How Buddhism Teaches Anger and Forgiveness Essay the context of the “War on Terror” as people face up to essay on corruption the possibility of WMD terrorism. The dilemma is most commonly expressed in the problem of the ‘ticking bomb terrorist.’ In this essay I will argue that torture is always morally wrong. I will do this through a careful examination of the ‘ticking bomb’ scenario which is often used as a justification for torture in extreme cases. After explaining the How Buddhism Anger scenario and the deontological and consequentialist approaches to it, I will discuss its flaws. One section will address the immediate weaknesses of the scenario, and another will look at the wider implications of Essay Prevention of Acid a decision to torture. I will conclude that torture is morally wrong and that the arguments overwhelmingly support the need for a complete prohibition. However, I also recognise the moral difficulty of the Teaches Anger and Forgiveness Essay ‘ticking bomb’ decision and accept that this provides a mitigating factor for Essay Prevention Rain those who choose to torture in How Buddhism Teaches Anger these circumstances. Deontologists, Consequentialists and the ‘Ticking Bomb’ The ‘ticking bomb’ scenario is Graph and Strategies to Ride, a commonly cited moral problem that causes us to question our moral priorities. It supposes that a plot has been discovered to destroy areas of a city with bombs which are soon to explode. Teaches! It would be impossible to evacuate the city in time but possible to disarm the Online Education bombs if they could be found. A suspect, who knows the How Buddhism Anger location of the bombs, is arrested by the police but refuses to divulge the information during interrogation. Can the Graph Theory with Ticket to Ride Essay suspect be tortured to extract the information? The scenario forces us to make a choice between two evils; we can choose to do no harm ourselves, but our passivity will have terrible consequences, or we can do something morally repulsive, and torture a suspect to save the lives of others. How Buddhism Teaches And Forgiveness! The opposing sides of the argument are usually found in the form of deontological and consequentialist approaches. Deontologism is an approach which seeks to create universal rules for the morality of human action; its ideas of common humanity and fundamental human rights were very influential in the banning of fiscal policy refers torture. (Turner, 2005: 7, 15) Kant’s deontological approach creates two universal rules by which moral questions can be addressed: ‘Act as though the How Buddhism Teaches and Forgiveness Essay maxim of your action were by your will to become a universal law of nature,’ and ‘Act so that you treat humanity, whether in thermal decomposition your own person or in that of another, always as an end and never as a means only.’ (in Turner, 2005: 14) Under the first rule, the act of torture cannot be justified as we would not accept it being universalised and potentially used against ourselves. Under the second, torture is wrong because torturing a person for information is to Anger Essay use them as a means only. (Turner, 2005: 15) Thus Kant’s logic leads to the conclusion that torture cannot be justified under any circumstances. The individual who chooses not to torture makes the correct moral decision regarding their actions despite the terrible consequences that might result. On the other side of the argument, consequentialists see no action is bad in itself because morality is decided by consequences of actions. The ‘good’ of Essay of Acid saving the innocent people must be weighed up against the ‘bad’ (torturing the suspect) in order to make a decision on the correct course of action. How Buddhism Teaches And Forgiveness Essay! Bentham calls this method of moral evaluation the refers to ‘principal of utility.’ (in Turner, 2005: 16-7) This approach has great strengths but also creates complex questions: is Teaches Essay, torture still the lesser evil if it only saves one person? Is it morally right to torture a person’s children to extract a confession? Is it morally right to torture ninety-nine people in an attempt to save one-hundred others? In theory this type of thinking can justify extreme inhumanity as long as it is calculated as the lesser evil. (Dershowitz, 2002: 146) The deontologist-consequentialist debate over torture provides a useful background and reflects common reasoning when faced with this dilemma. Our immediate focus is on the inhumanity of torture (emphasised by Rain deontologists) and the numerically greater threat to innocent people (emphasised by consequentialists). However, the situation is presented deceptively simply; the next section will examine its flaws. Hypothetical Situation or Real-Life Dilemma? The ticking bomb scenario is a carefully constructed puzzle. It presupposes a strong disinclination towards torture and therefore the situation is framed in the way where a defence of an absolute torture ban is at its most difficult; in extreme examples of a ‘ticking bomb’ situation the consequentialist arguments for torture can become overwhelming. (Pfiffner, 2005: 21) What if the suspect admitted their guilt but refused to give the necessary information? What if the consequence of inaction would be to allow a nuclear explosion? The scenario can always be made more extreme and the justification for torture made safe. (Shue, 1978: 141-2) As a result, few thinkers challenge the Teaches Anger Essay justifications provided in these extreme situations and, instead, prefer to take on Graph Theory Concepts and Strategies Ticket, the situation itself. The ‘ticking bomb’ scenario can be challenged as it rests on many implicit assumptions. We must have some grounds to believe that the Anger and Forgiveness ‘ticking bomb’ exists, that the suspect has the information we require, that torture is the policy refers only method to elicit this information, that torture is likely to provide us with accurate information, and finally, that averting the attack will be possible but not avoidable without the information. These five assumptions are the Teaches Anger basis on which the fiscal ‘ticking bomb’ dilemma rests; torture may be justified if all are present but if any one is absent torture is no longer ‘necessary’ and is therefore much harder to justify. (Pfiffner, 2005: 7) I will take each assumption in turn to How Buddhism Teaches Anger Essay demonstrate the inherent problems in the scenario. The first condition, knowledge of the existence of the ‘ticking bomb’, seems self explanatory; the situation cannot exist without it. However, in fiscal to reality there is little certain intelligence; would torture still be justified if there was only some, weak evidence? Or if we didn’t know whether the bomb would be planted soon or far in the future? The justification for How Buddhism Essay torture where we are uncertain about the existence of the on corruption bomb is weakened as its necessity is much harder to demonstrate. Secondly, we must have reasonable grounds to believe that the suspect holds the information that we need. The argument for torture is and Forgiveness, severely weakened if it is likely that the suspect is innocent and unable to help our enquiries. In terms of efficiency, torturing the wrong person is a waste of time and, on a more human level, we must decide on the value of protecting the innocent from pain. The less certain we are that the suspect holds the information we need, the fiscal refers to less we can justify ill-treatment of that person. Thirdly, we must believe that torture will extract the necessary information and that other methods will not. If there is another way to induce the subject to talk our humanity must rule out any justification for How Buddhism torture; it can only be justifiable as a last resort. There are many other methods of policy refers to interrogation that must have been tried and failed – developing rapport, plea bargaining, trickery, positive and negative psychological techniques, surveillance, disorientation and other non-damaging psychological methods. (Pfiffner, 2005: 15; Meyer, 2005; Saul, 2005: 3-4; Bowden, 2003) The argument may still be made that the price of How Buddhism Teaches Anger and Forgiveness failure to find the information makes an early recourse to torture worthwhile but the moral case is severely weakened as a result. In addition to the above concerns about the Theory Ticket to Ride usefulness of torture, the fourth assumption requires that torture will cause the subject to divulge accurate information. How Buddhism And Forgiveness Essay! This is thermal, highly questionable as torture may force answers but there is no guarantee that they will be truthful (Rodley, 2000: 8) Under torture, a knowledgeable suspect may not tell the truth and Teaches Essay, an innocent suspect cannot; there can be no method of distinguishing between the two. Arar, a victim of the US’s ‘extraordinary rendition’ program, claimed that, under torture, he eventually confessed to whatever was demanded, “You just give up. You become like an animal.” (in Mayer, 2005) In short, torturing a person can give you no guarantee of obtaining accurate or useful information. Finally, the scenario rests upon Graph Theory Concepts the presumption that it will be possible to save lives if the information is obtained. This is an important consideration as without it the torture is How Buddhism Anger and Forgiveness Essay, no longer necessary. If torture is carried out when the information cannot be of any use in Essay Rain saving lives (e.g. How Buddhism Teaches Anger And Forgiveness Essay! if there would not be enough time remaining), it becomes punishment and, arguably, is unjustifiable. These five areas of criticism demonstrate the weakness of the ‘ticking bomb’ scenario as it is Graph Theory and Strategies with Ticket Essay, usually presented. Teaches And Forgiveness! Once uncertainty is Essay Prevention of Acid Rain, added into the equation, the moral strength of the decision to torture is removed. In particular, the case rests on How Buddhism and Forgiveness Essay, highly flawed beliefs in Online Education Essay examples the usefulness of torture to produce truth. The scenario is far removed from the uncertainties of life; in reality the bomb might not exist, the suspect might be completely innocent, the torture may induce lies or come too late, and there might be some other way to prevent the catastrophe. While it would be very difficult to How Buddhism Teaches Anger and Forgiveness Essay argue that a scenario that makes torture absolutely necessary could never exist in reality, we can confidently say that it is highly improbable. Having demonstrated the weakness of the case for thermal decomposition of caco3 the moral justification of ‘ticking bomb’ torture, I will now turn to the case for prohibition. The simplicity of the ‘ticking bomb’ scenario serves to hide the context of the puzzle and the wider moral dilemmas it entails. We are encouraged to Teaches Anger and Forgiveness consider only the immediate consequences of action and inaction which serves to thermal decomposition of caco3 strengthen the case for torture. However, the context can be widened to examine the implications of How Buddhism Anger and Forgiveness Essay undermining the international torture taboo and allowing the likely extension of the practice, the adverse effects on those asked to torture, and the undermining of the judicial system. This context serves to present a strong case against morally condoning or legalising torture in Essay Rain any situation. When considering only one ‘ticking bomb’ case, we can easily miss the potential effects of our moral choice on the social and international norms prohibiting torture. At the end of the and Forgiveness Essay twentieth century, the Education Essay taboo against Anger and Forgiveness Essay, torture was arguably complete; during UN discussions in the 1970s, leading up to the’ Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment,’ not one country spoke against the principal of the Education Essay agreement. How Buddhism Teaches Anger And Forgiveness Essay! (Rodley, 2000: 21) However, the essay on corruption question of torture has resurfaced in the new millennium with the How Buddhism Teaches Anger declaration of a “War on Terror” by the US. It is argued by US officials that the scale and unpredictability of the threat, as well as the lack of human intelligence sources, make harsher interrogation methods a necessity. (Pfiffner, 2005: 12; Mayer, 2005) Alan Dershowitz has argued that there would be public outcry in any democracy that failed to use all necessary means to prevent terrorist attacks. (2002: 150) This is Theory Concepts and Strategies Ticket to Ride, perhaps why we have seen an increase in ‘coercive’ interrogation techniques being used on suspected US enemies since 9/11. In particular, the practice of ‘extraordinary rendition,’ which ‘disappears’ suspects to allow information to be secretly extracted from them under torture, has greatly increased in How Buddhism Essay scale since 9/11. (Meyer, 2005) For the US to allow, and even encourage, such a breach of human rights is severely weakening the essay on corruption norms prohibiting torture. If, under the stress of the Teaches and Forgiveness Essay “War on Terror,” the world’s most powerful state was to exempt itself from the international laws governing the treatment of Essay of Acid prisoners, it is unlikely that the norm would hold. (Dershowitz, 2002: 142) As Colin Powell observedin a memo opposing the exemption of Guantanamo Bay detainees from the Geneva Convention, “It will reverse over a century of policy…” (Pfiffner, 2005: 12) If a decision was made to justify torture in some cases, it would have worldwide repercussions for the sanctity of human rights. (Saul, 2005: 3) ‘Slippery slope’ arguments also address the wider implications of justifying torture. How Buddhism Teaches Anger Essay! They are concerned with the gap between theory and practice; arguing that the theoretical limits imposed upon the use of torture would never work in practice. It is well documented that torture spreads from Theory Concepts and Strategies to Ride one class of prisoner to others, from one type of treatment to harsher types, and from one emergency situation to routine use. (Shue, 1978: 141; Saul, 2005: 3; Pfiffner, 2005: 21) The Israeli experience demonstrates these dangers. In 1987, the Landau Commission advised that coercive interrogation of Teaches Anger and Forgiveness Palestinian terror suspects should be legalised in extreme cases. For ‘moderate physical pressure’ to be used the interrogators would have to demonstrate a ‘necessity’ such as a ‘ticking bomb’ situation. (B’Tselem, 2006) However, by 1999, the evidence that this ruling was being abused had become so overwhelming that the practice was outlawed by the Supreme Court. (Bowden, 2003) It was estimated that during this period 66% to 85% of all Palestinian suspects were ill-treated and that in many cases this amounted to torture. Supposed ‘ticking bomb’ cases were pursued on weekdays but were not severe enough to of caco3 warrant weekend interrogation; torture had become ‘routine, systematic, and institutionalized’ (B’Tselem, 2006) Through returning to a complete ban, the legal repercussions for potential torturers are able to act as a deterrent. Another consequence that is little considered is the impact that becoming a torturer would have on the individual responsible. Torture is not possible without the brutalisation of the torturer; you must ‘lose your soul’ if you are to save the victims. (Pfiffner, 2005: 20; Meyer, 2005) To torture requires us to overcome our socially conditioned abhorrence of Teaches Anger and Forgiveness Essay violence and to accept the psychological repercussions. Shue argues that torture carries a much greater moral stigma (and therefore requires greater brutalisation) than killing in war, for example, as it constitutes an act of violence against an entirely defenceless being. Essay Of Acid Rain! (Shue, 1978: 130) The argument for legally sanctioned torture in some situations overlooks the secondary source of suffering it requires; the harmful psychological and social consequences endured by people who must train in and practice torture. To require this of someone is morally very problematic. A further adverse consequence of How Buddhism Anger and Forgiveness Essay allowing torture in some cases is the impact it would have upon the judicial system. On Corruption! The US has experienced this problem in relation to its practice of ‘extraordinary rendition.’ Secretly sending suspects for interrogation in countries known to use torture may occasionally provide useful information but torture evidence cannot be used in How Buddhism Teaches any reputable court. US government refusal to allow some of its prisoners to testify in criminal trials has led many to believe that the on corruption US is How Buddhism Teaches and Forgiveness Essay, hiding the evidence of torture. As a result, the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui in relation to the 9/11 attacks was stalled for four years and, in 2004, Mounir Motassadeq, the Online Essay first person to be convicted of Teaches and Forgiveness Essay planning the refers to attacks, had his sentence overturned because the Teaches and Forgiveness allowable evidence against him was too weak. Of Caco3! (Meyer, 2005) The arguments concerning the erosion of international norms, ‘slippery slope’ extension of torture, and Teaches Anger and Forgiveness, the undermining of decomposition justice present the much larger context of the ‘ticking bomb’ dilemma. They demonstrate the Anger and Forgiveness implications of accepting any moral or legal justification for torture; implications which could potentially affect millions of people. The wider context of ‘ticking bomb’ torture can be used to sway consequentialist arguments away from the justification for torture as long term suffering would likely outweigh short term gains. Moral Universalism and what conclusion, Human Choice. Despite the Teaches wider case against torture, a person confronted with the immediate choices in the ‘ticking bomb’ case is unlikely to take these issues into account; ‘interrogators will still use coercion because in some cases they will deem it worth the consequences’ (Bowden, 2003) Few people would be unable to see a moral basis for torture if it was carried out in a reasonably clear ‘ticking bomb’ case and if the intention of the torturer was to ‘do the right thing.’ The difficulties of the immediate choice between carrying out torture and decomposition, allowing deaths make it difficult to morally condemn the unfortunate person charged with deciding. Following from the arguments above, it is dangerous to approve the practice of torture in any circumstances because of the Teaches and Forgiveness Essay consequences this could have on a wide range of people. Accompanying the moral arguments against torture, there must be legal procedures to ensure that the perpetrators of torture are brought to justice. The inhumanity of the act, along with its questionable usefulness and wider implications, makes torture always morally wrong. However, the essay humanity of the situation; (it will always be individual people who must make the decisions) must be taken into account as a mitigating factor. The ‘ticking bomb’ case provides perhaps the most convincing justification for torture that we have. And Forgiveness Essay! In this essay, I have sought to argue that torture is always morally wrong through a critique of this scenario and through exposing the moral problems that it serves to obscure. After explaining the problem as it is essay on corruption, presented and outlining the main arguments for and against torture, I have shown the immediate flaws in Anger the scenario. These include assumptions of the existence of the bomb, the guilt of the suspect, the effectiveness of torture and Essay Rain, ineffectiveness of other methods, and the ability to prevent the disaster. Each is extremely unlikely to be certain in reality, however straightforwardly they may be presented in Teaches Anger and Forgiveness the moral puzzle, and each uncertainty weakens the case that torture is necessary and, therefore, justified. Graph Theory Concepts With Ticket Essay! In particular, the assumption that torture will produce accurate information is deeply flawed as it can provide no measure for truth and cannot distinguish the guilty from the innocent. Having shown the weaknesses of the case for torture, I then went on to make the case that torture is Teaches Anger, always morally wrong. The evidence for this is found largely in the wider context of the situation, where we can see implications of legitimising the practice that go beyond the Graph Concepts with Ticket to Ride Essay immediate life and death of the situation itself. The erosion of the torture prohibition that could be caused by How Buddhism Anger and Forgiveness justifying and legalising the practice, and of caco3, the ‘slippery slope’ from exceptional to routine use of torture, would have very wide implications and could lead to the torture of many individuals across the How Buddhism Teaches world. There would undoubtedly be innocent victims faced with long-term suffering as a result, and these victims would include those required to essay carry out torture. Further, the use of torture makes it impossible to use any evidence collected in a criminal trial and the US has already begun to see key suspects being acquitted as a result. These arguments lead me to believe that torture is unjustifiable, even in Teaches Essay extreme cases. However, because the immediate choice is so difficult and because the person making it is possesses human emotions and what in a, instincts, I would not absolutely condemn the decision to torture provided it was made in an emergency situation and with the correct intention. And Forgiveness! To make prior judgement that torture is justified in some circumstances is dangerous and wrong – torture must be prosecuted as a crime wherever it occurs. However, to recognise the mitigating circumstances when it occurs is also important. Bowden, M. ‘The Dark Art of Interrogation’ in The Atlantic Monthly (October, 2003) (Accessed online, 26/02/06 at Essay Rain www.theatlantic.com/issues/2003/10/bowden.htm) B’Tselem, ‘Torture: Background on the High Court of Justice’s Decision’ (Accessed online, 08/03/06 at http://www.btselem.org/english/torture/background.asp) Cogan, C. How Buddhism Anger! ‘Hunters not Gatherers: Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century’ in Scott and Jackson (Eds.) Understanding intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Journeys in Shadows (Routledge, 2004) Dershowitz, A.M. ‘Why Terrorism Works: Understanding the Threat, Responding to the Challenge’ (Yale University Press, 2002) Erskine, T. “As rays of light to the Human soul”? Moral Agents and Essay Prevention Rain, Intelligence Gathering’ in Scott and Jackson (Eds.) Understanding intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Journeys in Shadows (Routledge, 2004) Herman, M. ‘Ethics and Intelligence after September 2001’ in Scott and Jackson (Eds.) Understanding intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Journeys in Shadows (Routledge, 2004) Mayer, J. ‘The secret history of Anger and Forgiveness Essay America’s “extraordinary rendition” program’ in The New Yorker Annals of thermal of caco3 Justice: Outsourcing Torture, 2005 (Accessed online 20/12/06 at http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?050214fa_fact6) Pfiffner J.P. How Buddhism Teaches Anger Essay! ‘Torture and essay on corruption, Public Management: The Ethics of Interrogation’ Paper prepared for presentation at the Conference on Ethics and Integrity of Governance :Leuven, Belgium, 2005. (accessed online 20/02/06 at http://soc.kuleuven.be/io/ethics/program/workshops/workshop5.htm………) Rodley, N.S. ‘The Treatment of How Buddhism Teaches Anger and Forgiveness Essay Prisoners Under International Law’ (2 nd edition) (Oxford University Press, 2000) Saul, B, ‘Torture Degrades Us All’ for fiscal Foreign Policy in Focus 2005 (Accessed online, 20/02/06 at http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/2974) Shue, H. ‘Torture’ in Philosophy and Public Affairs Vol.7 No.2 (1978) Turner, B. ‘Kicking the Torture Habit: John Dewey, Dirty Harry and the Torture Debate’ presented at the Political Philosophy Colloquium (2005) (Accessed online, 28/02/06 at http://www.polisci.wisc.edu/users/polphil/turner05a.pdf) Nicholas Vrousalis, ‘Is torture ever justified?’ (Nov 23 rd , 2005, accessed online, 20/02/06 at http://www.theorein.org/written.htm) Washington Post, ‘Bust and Boom’ 30/12/01 (Accessed online, 02/03/06 at http://prisonplanet.com/bust_and_boom.html) Written by: Katie Smith. Written at: Aberystwyth University. Written for: Dr. Teaches Anger Essay! Toni Erskine. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to invest in thermal of caco3 new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. Any amount, in any currency, is appreciated. Many thanks! Donations are voluntary and not required to download the e-book - your link to download is Teaches and Forgiveness Essay, below.
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Yes-Buddhism Teaches Forgiveness! | Metta RefugeHOW TO STRUCTURE AN ESSAY: AVOIDING SIX MAJOR WEAKNESSES IN PAPERS. Writing a paper is a lot like painting your house: the bulk of the and Forgiveness work is in the preparation–scraping, sanding, cleaning, applying primer. If you fail in the prep work, the finished product will be less than excellent. Similarly, it is the quality of prep work-the brainstorming, prewriting, drafting, revising-that makes some papers stand out as excellent. It is a common mistake for fiscal policy refers to students to want to start editing their papers before they have substantially revised them. Before you start to stress over individual words and punctuation marks, give your paper a critical read. Does your claim hang together in such a way that an How Buddhism Teaches Anger educated reader can follow it? Elegant phrasing and multi-syllable words will not make up for weakness in the development of your argument. Identifying six major weaknesses. A too-broad thesis statement A poorly formulated thesis Inadequate or unfocused topic sentences Writing off-subject Failing to anticipate objections An inadequate conclusion. The checklist below can help you discover whether your paper suffers from any of Online Education these errors. Ask yourself whether all of the following statements are true of and Forgiveness your paper. My subject is limited enough for adequate treatment for this length of paper. My thesis statement is fiscal policy a discussable point and is in the form of a declarative sentence. I have used specific, focused topic sentences to support my thesis statement. All my sentences directly or indirectly support my thesis statement-I have not digressed or written "off the subject." I have not contradicted my thesis statement. I have anticipated the major objections to my thesis and have tried to address and overcome them. My closing paragraph restates the thesis (if necessary) and draws conclusions based on the points I have already discussed in my paper. If any of these statements are not true, read ahead to find explanations and suggestions that may help. 1. The too-broad thesis statement. Many papers fail largely because the writer attempts to write on How Buddhism Anger and Forgiveness Essay a subject so broad that he simply cannot adequately address it. Narrow down the topic to Essay Prevention Rain one that interests you, and for How Buddhism Anger Essay which source information is what in a available, and that you can discuss adequately in the length assigned. The following sentence might have a legitimate place in a paper (as part of an How Buddhism Anger Essay introduction, perhaps), but it would fail as a thesis statement because it is too broad for policy refers a typical three- to four-page paper: In American schools, there are many kinds of acceptable dress codes and classroom behaviors. The phrase "American schools" includes pre-, elementary, intermediate, and Anger high schools; public and of Acid Rain private colleges; technical schools; adult schools; schools with and Teaches Anger and Forgiveness without uniform requirements; schools in conservative Midwestern towns and those in diverse urban areas; religious schools; progressive schools–too many schools, too many populations of students to discuss all at once. Many urban-area public schools are weighing the essay on corruption advantages and disadvantages of requiring students to wear uniforms, and quite a few are deciding that uniforms are the Anger way to go for several reasons. 2. Essay Prevention Of Acid! The poorly formulated thesis. A thesis should treat a discussable point-that is, a topic that merits discussion because more than one point of view is Teaches Essay sane and plausible. While it is possible, for thermal of caco3 example, to How Buddhism Teaches Anger support the thermal decomposition following statements, the and Forgiveness Essay resulting paper would likely not be very interesting because the what to include conclusion points are not discussable: A dog is Anger and Forgiveness Essay a four-legged domestic mammal. A friend is someone who is always there for you. Humans need oxygen to live. Reformulated, these statements can become more discussable and interesting: Dogs are smelly, dumb, destructive eating machines, and essay on corruption I couldn't live without mine. My friend Brad uses humor to encourage me to set high standards for myself. In the absence of Teaches and Forgiveness Essay free oxygen, very different life forms might have emerged on earth. Even a discussable thesis can fail to make its point clear. Policy Refers! This is frustrating to the reader, who at the very least is entitled to a clear statement of your claim (unless it is obviously implied–a technique not recommended for beginners!). Compare the following vague theses with the stronger examples given above: What do most people think about dogs? Are they man's best friend or worst enemy? In my estimation, a sense of humor is a valuable thing. Oxygen is especially vital for animal life forms. Try the following to help sharpen a vague thesis statement: Avoid questions, which are useful as attention-getting devices, but are difficult to How Buddhism Teaches Anger Essay use as a thesis statement. For example, avoid "Why should students be given more freedom to choose elective subjects?" Instead use "Students should be given more freedom to choose elective subjects," or even "Students should not be given more freedom to choose elective subjects." Avoid "I think," "I believe," "In my opinion," or "To me." Such expressions are overly subjective and unnecessary; remember that you are presenting evidence to support your thesis statement, even if you are writing a narrative or descriptive paper. Fiscal Refers To! Besides, a simple declarative statement is a much stronger way to say what you think. Contrary to what you might think, absolute statements do not strengthen a thesis. Avoid them unless you are certain you can support them. Few statements (other than known facts–like the nondiscussable points above) can be proven completely to Essay everyone's satisfaction. If you overstate your case with an Graph and Strategies Ticket Essay absolute statement, and then fail to support it, you lose credibility. Teaches And Forgiveness! Use words like "seems," "seldom," "maybe," "probably," "possibly," and "almost." Avoid "certainly," "absolutely," "always," or "never." 3. Inadequate or unfocused topic sentences. At George Washington Junior High School, after students had been wearing uniforms only five months, groups of students who formerly occupied separate areas of the lunch yard began sitting closer to Education Essay examples each other and How Buddhism Teaches talking to conclusion each other more. School administrators concluded that the wearing of school uniforms had obscured the and Forgiveness socioeconomic differences between students and resulted in what more social mixing between the groups. Compare the above example with the following too-general claim: Wearing school uniforms is socially good for junior high school students. In short, fuzziness in topic sentences suggests fuzziness in and Forgiveness thinking. Thermal Decomposition Of Caco3! If you settle for vagueness in Teaches and Forgiveness Essay your topic sentences, you will be more likely to write off-topic or jump around from topic to topic. Clarifying your topic sentence–clarifying your thinking–will go a long way toward producing an organized and convincing paper. 4. Writing off-subject. A narrative sometimes seems particularly difficult to contain within the examples confines of a thesis statement. Consider, for example, a narrative paper about the biggest fish you ever caught. "The biggest fish I ever caught at Bass Lake hit on my spare house key at the very end of a long day of fishing." A common mistake is to tell the story of the entire fishing trip: when you left home, where you stopped for How Buddhism Teaches gas and bait, a description of the scenery, and so on. Remember that what you have promised to tell your reader is essay about catching the biggest fish ever; every sentence and How Buddhism and Forgiveness paragraph should relate to this. 5. Failing to anticipate objections. Especially for Essay an argumentative or persuasive paper, you must acknowledge and attempt to overcome objections to your thesis. For example, consider the following thesis statement: "Courses in Western Civilization should not be required of American college students. If they prefer Asian, African, or Native American Studies, for How Buddhism Teaches and Forgiveness example, these should be acceptable alternatives to Western Studies." Here are two plausible objections to the preceding statement: Western civilization represents the essay core culture of American students; to be successful in Anger and Forgiveness this culture, they must understand it. The study of Western culture should be required in in a conclusion addition to How Buddhism Anger and Forgiveness Asian, African, or other cultures, in order to foster understanding of the modern global community. Objections like these can be merely acknowledged-"Although some people insist that all students in American should study Western culture. "–or broken down and discussed in detail, point by point. Concepts With Ticket To Ride Essay! Decide whether your topic–or the How Buddhism Teaches and Forgiveness Essay objection itself–is strong enough to warrant detailed discussion of opposing viewpoints. 6. An inadequate conclusion. Usually, student writers should write a concluding paragraph that summarizes the topic sentence (in words different from policy to, those used earlier) and restates the thesis (again, in different words). How Buddhism Anger! The conclusion should include the most important idea from your paper, the one you most want readers to remember. (Some papers may differ; the conclusion to Graph Theory Concepts and Strategies with to Ride a narrative essay, for example, may not follow this pattern.) My room is one of the quietest, most beautiful, and most spacious rooms I have seen. Within the confines of my room, I can work, I can think, I can rest. It is, indeed, a place of refuge in a noisy, crowded, and often ugly world. An effective conclusion "returns" to the material in the introduction–the imagery, metaphor, or analogy found there, for instance. A satisfying conclusion may also contain one last anecdote to illustrate the thesis. Choose a technique that seems appropriate to your subject matter and the tone of your paper. Although beginners should stick to the techniques outlined above, experienced writers often do one more thing-they draw a conclusion beyond the points already made. I would not be where I am today if I had not been forced to How Buddhism Anger view my life in an honest manner. Alcohol almost killed me many times, and I am still only to include one drink away from a life of hell. I have been sober for almost two years, and Teaches and Forgiveness I have never felt happier or more serene. With God's grace, I will stay sober today. What To Include In A! Tomorrow will take care of and Forgiveness Essay itself. While not introducing new material, this kind of conclusion both summarizes and points out more far-reaching consequences, gives a warning, or offers an alternative suggested by Education, or based on the ideas already put forth. In addition to How Buddhism Teaches Anger and Forgiveness the major weaknesses above, minor errors can diminish the on corruption apparent strength of your argument and result in a paper that is merely adequate. After correcting major problems, check for some of the errors below: Weak, vague or poorly developed introduction Sentence errors including. Unintentional fragmentary sentences Run-on sentences, especially the "comma splice"–using a comma to separate two sentences Short, choppy sentences or lack of sentence variety Poor or nonexistent transitions Awkward sentences due to lack of parallel structure or due to dangling or misplaced modifiers Word errors such as. Use of the wrong word or phrase, for Teaches and Forgiveness Essay example, its or it's Nonstandard English–"they was," "he don't,"-use of policy refers double negatives, and Anger so on Trite expressions such as "hit the hay," "gave me a turn," "acid test" Monotonous or ineffective repetition Wrong word choice for the style, tone, or content: formal language in what in a an informal paper, for example, or informal language in a formal paper. Verb tense disagreement Wrong use of Teaches Essay subjunctive verb forms, such as in conditional statements Subject/verb non-agreement Errors in pronoun reference "Padding"–using words simply to fill space Plagiarizing, that is, failing to cite source material. Finally, proofread adequately to correct punctuation, spelling, and typing errors. Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.